The ecological condition and physicochemical properties of the soils of the territory of the middle coast of the lake most visited by tourists on the west coast were studied. Baikal (Eastern Olkhon Region) and the eastern slope of the Primorskii Range. The studied soils have a predominantly low-power, strong and medium stone profile, a light particle size distribution, a high content of humus, and a predominantly neutral and slightly alkaline reaction. Vertical zonality is observed in the structure of the soil cover. The results of the conducted studies have shown that the soils of the recreational zone of the coast have elevated contents of some toxic elements, which may be due to anthropogenic stress and a high content of macro- and microelements in the soil-forming rocks. The adjacent territory of the Primorskii Range is exposed to the least recreational impact due to difficult passable places and poor development of ecological and extreme tourism. In the soils of the Primorskii Range, lower concentrations of toxic elements were detected.
Purpose of work. Identification of the features of the mountain soils microelement composition formation under the forest vegetation of the Western Caucasus with a homogeneous nature of soil-forming rocks.
Research мethods: The determination of the microelement composition of mountain soils was determined in the Teberda Nature Reserve, in the upper part of the Teberds river basin within the range of Malaya Khatipara. Chemical analysis of the soil is carried out by generally accepted methods. In soils, the content of strongly bound Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd compounds by acid decomposition using 5 M HNO3 was analyzed. Mobile forms of trace elements are converted into a solution using an ammonium acetate buffer solution. The metal content is determined by voltammetric and atomic absorption methods. Features of the microelement composition of parent rocks are revealed by comparison with clarks of chemical elements in the upper part of the continental crust. The trace element composition of soils is compared with clarks of chemical elements in the soils of the world.
Research results. Differences in the microelement composition of brown mountain forest soils formed under different types of forests have been revealed. The trace element composition of soils under fir forests is characterized by large concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn; under the pine trees – high Pb levels; under birch stands – relatively low concentrations of Pb and Zn; Soils of beech forests are characterized by minimal concentrations of Cd. Exposure differences in the manifestation of the climatic and biological factors of soil formation are reflected in the features of the microelement composition of soils. Between the content of trace elements in mountain forest brown soils and the distribution of humus, positive correlation relationships of medium strength for Cu, Cd were revealed; weak for Pb.
Conclusions. The formation of trace elements is determined in mountain soils by changes in the conditions of soil formation and the intensity of weathering processes – soil formation with the height and exposure of the slopes. The microelement composition of brown mountain forest soils under deciduous forests is strongly transformed in comparison with parent rocks. The influence of the mineralogical composition of parent rocks in a certain way affects the microelement composition of brown mountain forest soils under coniferous forests.
The research results of quartz – carbonaceous metasomatites of Eastern Donbass, including metal-bearing, with use of the experimental autoclave unit BAR-1 allowing to carry out destruction of solid substance in the conditions of sharp pressure and temperature variations are covered in article. It is established that as a result of autoclave processing of quartz – carbonaceous metasomatites tests in thermobarogradient conditions at the modes «stationary», «return» explosion, «choking» there are changes of structure and technological properties of the rocks which are shown in changes of particle size distribution and transition of ore elements from disseminated state in a firm phase to solution. At these modes there is a refinement of minerals and synthesis of polymineral aggregates and monocrystals. Considerable transformation of substance happens at the «return» explosion and «choking». At the «stationary» mode the autoclave was filled for 90% with rock, fraction −2+1 mm., with the distilled water and was heated for 2 hours at temperatures of 200-400 °C. The mode «return» explosion is almost similar to «stationary», but differs in a rupture of membranes at the subsequent increase of temperatures up to 400–655 °C. At the «choking» mode the tests were heated up to a rupture of membranes at temperatures of 400-600 °C, with the subsequent passing of suspension via the adapter and a perforated membrane. At these modes in all tests of rocks reactionary zones in quartz, a resorption and a dispergation of mineral grains, an upheaving of organic material occurred. «Choking» also differs by synthesis of new minerals. According to results of chemical analysis researches of initial metasomatites and products of their destruction it is established that as a result of autoclave processing of tests at the «stationary» and the «return» explosion modes the decrease in the general content of ore elements in all types of metasomatites is observed relating to initial tests that speaks well for their extraction and transition to solution. By results of chemical-analysis researches of initial metasomatites and products of their destruction it is established that the autoclave study of tests in the «choking» mode is resulted by different behavior of total content of impurity elements in all types of metasomatites as relating to initial tests. At the same time if all rocks are only losing elements, then quartz hydrothermalit obtains. After studying the mineral concentrations on membranes the new growths of native silver, cuprite crystals, globose-skeletal structure of silicon dioxide – organic substrate were established.
An effective option of disturbed land reclamation by stow-ing the goaf with overburden rocks of mineral deposits is considered. Outside the settlements, under favorable geological conditions, a goaf may be stowed with solid household waste. It is noted that to prevent migration of waste degradation products, their intermediate layer-by-layer isolation is required.
The purpose of this work is to study the possibility of using man-made sediments of water treatment plants to form an insulating layer during the reclamation of disturbed land.
Method of research. The main physical and chemical parameters of the water treatment sediment were determined by generally accepted methods in accordance with the standards for soil samples. The fractional composition was studied by the method of Rutkovski. Humidity was determined by evaporation of water from a sample of sediment followed by drying to a constant mass. The mineral composition was studied by semi-quantitative spectral analysis. The relative deformation of the swelling was determined using the swell meter. The filtration coefficient was determined by filling the pits. A representative gross sample of sediment was placed in a ground recess to conduct research in natural conditions.
Outcomes and discussion. Water treatment sediment by its physical and chemical properties is a colloidal system consisting mainly of humus substances and clay minerals, as well as hardly soluble iron and aluminum hydroxides and manganese oxide. The results of the research indicate the stability in atmospheric conditions of the bearing properties of man-made soil formed when the sediment dries. The chemical composition of the sediment is characterized by the presence of heavy metals. Toxic elements such as lead and arsenic are bound by clay and organic particles, metal hydroxides and oxides that form sediment. As a result, the mobility of the elements is noticeably reduced. On the other hand, water treatment sediment can serve for plants as a source of trace elements such as copper, zinc, and nickel, contributing to the biological stage of reclamation.
Conclusion. Sediment of water treatment of filter plants is a promising material for use as a man-made insulating soil.
The main advantages of this application of water treatment sediment are associated with the possibility of using it on the surface of steep slopes, good sorption capacity in regard to polluting chemical elements and reduced filtration properties that prevent precipitation from entering the waste depth. The use of water treatment sludge as a technogenic secondary raw material makes it possible to solve the problems of environment-friendly waste management and recultivation of disturbed lands.
Purpose of research: The main aim of the academic research is interaction detection based on materials of the Mayma river basin (Altay Republic) between extreme meteorological and hydrographic situations.
Method of research: Extreme meteorological and hydrographic situations analyze was carried out upon predictive the criterion of drought and probability curve that was calculated using the annual average river discharge. Pearson’s code and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used for the determination of interaction detection between the parameters that characterize meteorological and hydrographic situations.
Research result: Conducted analyze of meteorological parameters anomalies allowed to distinguish two periods that are different from each other according to frequency years with different regimes of wetness. 1940/41 is the period with domination of «wetted» and «overwetted» years. 1976/77 and 1977/78–2013/2014 are the periods with high frequency of «dry» years. The probability curve was calculated according to the analyze of long-term range of annual average the Mayma river water discharge. Separate years according to the water content groups were distinguished: years with extreme little water (9,5 %), years with little water (31,1%), well watered years (20,3 %), extreme watered years (9,5 %).
Calculation of Pearson’s (R = – 0,59) and Spearman’s correlation coefficients (ρ = – 0,628) allowed to determine moderate linear correlation dependence between annual average flowing and wetness conditions for level of significance α=0,05. The revealed interrelation was confirmed by the synchronous display of extreme meteorological and hydrological situations in certain years.
Conclusions: The analyze of hydro meteorological facts of the Mayma river basin allowed to distinguish two periods that are different from each other according to their regimes of wetness and character of the river water content: more “wetted” and wetted, more “dry’ and with little water.
There is moderate linear correlation dependence between the parameters of river annual average discharge and dryness index values. This fact confirms important influence of meteorological factors on the river water content. At the same time there cannot be absolute dependence between extreme meteorological and hydrological situations that were determined according to annual average parameters. Preceding year’s autumn wetness, weather condition of snow melting and other factors significantly influence on the river flowing, particular on its maximum rating.
Although the current situation of the Iran’s land and the dominance of arid and semi-arid conditions cast a doubt on the existence of glacier reign in this land, there is evidence of geomorphological traces of glaciers in different areas of Iran indicating the function of glaciers in these regions.
Therefore, regarding these traces and evidences, the past climatic conditions can be reconstructed. Based on what mentioned above, this study mainly aimed to trace the climatic changes through the glacial traces and evidences on the Hezar Mountain.
Tracing the climatic changes indicates that the temperature of the study area was 6.58 °C colder than that of the current temperature during the period of glacial reign. In addition, the isopluvial map of the Hezar Mountain during the period of glacial reign indicates that the minimum rainfall at that time was 617 mm at the outlet of the basin and the maximum rainfall was 1340 mm at the highest part of the basin. On the other hand, glacier cirques, glacier valleys, and moraines were identified as the most characteristic geomorphological evidence of glaciers in the study area. Finally, laboratory indicators (granulometry), as a complement to glacier evidence, proved the existence of glacial sediments in the Tenguieh Basin. In addition, the permanent snow line was estimated at the height of 3326 meters in the Tenguieh Basin during the glacial reign and based on Porter’s cirque floor height et the height of 3333 m through the Wright method.
The social carrying capacity in tourism means the satisfaction of visitors with a particular recreational space. The social and psychological factors of the recreational space directly affect the visitor’s feelings. The level of satisfaction of visitors of gorge Sucha Bela is related to the difference between the perceived and expected number of visitors in the gorge, which is represented by two subjective levels (expected and perceptual level) of the tourism product. The paper aimed to quantify the social carrying capacity of Sucha Bela gorge in Slovak Paradise. The work methodology was based on primary and secondary data processing with the use of statistical methods. The result is the determination of correlation among real/excepted/acceptable meetings with other visitors and assessing the magnitude of the social capacity of the Sucha Bela gorge.
Utilizing the waste rock from mining activity to make block bricks is an effective solution to solve the environmental problems that they made. By theoretical basis and experiment, this research determined valid rates of waste rock (from wastes of disposal area of Thong Nhat coal mine), fly ash and cement conforming to standard block brick M100 to block brick M140 (according to TCVN 6477: 2011).
The development of polymetallic deposits of North Ossetia-Alania by traditional technologies is considered unprofitable. The intensification and increasing complexity of mining operations contributed to an increase in ore dilution and an increase in the yield of tailings. A significant environmental threat due to the manifestation of metal-induced toxicity actualizes the problem of tailings disposal. Known methods for the extraction of metals from tailings differ in the kinetics of the disclosure of metal ores in apparatuses that implement the physical principles of disintegration. Enrichment processes are modernized using hydrometallurgical and chemical processing, including leaching technologies. A common drawback of the proposed technologies is the formation of secondary metal-containing tailings, which does not solve the problem of waste-free utilization of ore mining and processing products.
The prospects for the involvement of tailings technogenic re-serves are associated with the conversion of mining to reagent leaching technologies in activators, for example, a disintegrator. In multivariate studies, 22% of lead and 76% of zinc in the tailings were recovered from the tailings of the slag dressing of the Sadon ores for one processing cycle in a disintegrator, and by repeated processing the contents were brought to the level of sanitary requirements. Geotechnological methods for producing metals in the region mastered earlier than others.
So, in 1974, at the Kakadur deposit of the Fiagdon group, the first in the world, an attempt was made to apply the technology of leaching the balance reserves of the entire deposit. To extract metals from the lost ores of the Sadon deposits, underground leaching of areas of lost ores with the circulation of solutions through wells from the surface is proposed. An increase in the production capacity of enterprises through the involvement of substandard resources provides profit when rich ores are processed traditionally, and poor and miserable ores are leached. In this case, the through recovery factor may exceed the value of extraction by conventional technology.
All the metals contained in the tailings are extracted into the solution, which, with the improvement of technologies for extracting metals from the solution, will ensure the profitability of the mining industry in the region. The technology has been stocked with tailings for several decades. The reality of metal extraction by leaching the lost ore reserves from tailings of enrichment and metallurgy is proved by many-year full-factor studies. The involvement of substandard metal-containing raw materials in operation provides a comprehensive effect, the main components of which are the improvement of the region, the receipt of valuable marketable products and the solution of social problems.
Researches on the regularities of the natural and technical system’s functioning of the mining and processing complex are becoming more relevant in connection with the task of modernizing production and the economy of Russia as a whole. Due to the significant volume of poorly structured data, it is more difficult to regulate the effective functioning of production processes, social and natural complexes which would ensure the sustainable development of mountain territories.
The purpose of researches. A comprehensive analysis of the application of effective technologies for the extracting a useful component of mining and processing complex for ensure complete mineral mining with the least losses and contamination of various morphological groups of ore bodies.
Study purposes. The desired goal and tasks are solved on the basis comprehensive research problems of the efficiency upgrading of mining complex technical system. For this purpose, a system is being developed for selecting effective technologies in winning areas of mine sites and ore mines under conditions of mountain territories.
Research results. The results of conducted researches allow us to make decisions effectively for the right choice of effective technologies for the mining and processing complex. A feature of this research is that the proposed method can be used in the mineral assets of North Caucasian mountain territories.
Conclusion. Promising problems in the development of mineral deposits include: integrated development of the subsoil, reproduction of resources in the subsoil, maximum extraction of elements in the processing of ore bodies with complex morphology. The use of effective technologies will radically reduce losses and dilution in extraction of mineral resources.
The authors calculated the indicators of losses and dilution for the period of experimental program development, which show the dynamics of changes in these indicators as the system is developed. Research Dynamics Impressions The dynamics of research shows that indicators close to the calculated ones appear only from 2018 as the system is put into full power. At the same time, they are not yet indicative to the end, since none of the sub-levels and the full-height floor haven’t been worked out. Final conclusions about these indicators can only be made after the floor has been fully worked out. In 2019–2020, the system was further developed at the ore mine and was implemented in the design version on the sub-levels of the upper horizons throughout the ore trend.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)