Purpose. Very limited number of research works on sustainable development in Russia deals with its political dimension, and still less number of works interprets respective issues on regional level. This article attempts to substantiate the necessity of purposeful analysis of political form and modes of political action most relevant for institutionalization of sustainable regional development.
Methods. The methodology of research is based on relating the concepts of political theory to systemic representation of socio-ecological-economic sustainability as well to activity interpretation and cognitive analysis of the problems of sustainable development.
Results. In a perspective of systematic approach the sustainable development represents a function of society as a conscious subject, which is able to control and regulate its relations with environment. The political realm mediates transition to sustainable development, because it affects society as a whole and implies deep restructuring of its guiding principles. Specific feature of sustainable development policy is its dependence on cognitive aspects – modes of acquisition and effectuating of knowledge relevant for successful political action. Variability and complexity of the related factors makes it necessary to mobilize the knowledge of all the members of respective society. The most adequate to this end mechanisms were developed within self–governing democratic societies. But sustainable development policy highlights the significance of “deliberative democracy”, which lays emphasis on the centrality for democratic practices not as a single act of voting but as the preceding it public deliberation, discussions and agreement on the most effective solutions of the problems of sustainable development. Within complex, plural societies, such as Russia, the advance towards the goals of sustainable development as well as the effect of impeding factors of unsustainability are developing in the realm of “center-periphery” relations. The core issues are related here to the authority and resources at the disposal of regions and to the question as if they are the bearers of their own political will or not.
Conclusions: As to the modern Russia and its regions, all of this leads to conclusion that to put seriously the tasks of transition to sustainable development means as well to put seriously the tasks of transition to effective democracy both at federal and regional levels.
The Sardarapat structure represents a swell-like uplift 40-70 m high above the Ararat Depression surface, consisting of a system of swells and hills. Identifying if the Sardarapat structure is an active fault and a linear seismogenic zone is a sensitive issue both for understanding the recent geodynamics of the Ararat Valley, and for the seismic hazard assessment. The studies were aimed at applying complex surveys to answer this question and to improve the current estimate of potential maximum magnitude of the seismogenic zone. The tasks included revealing any surface ruptures or soil liquefaction effects by the techniques of geological-geophysical field studies. In terms of kinematics, the identified ruptures are reverse faults with vertical dipping plane. Apparently, the surface ruptures are associated with a young active fault, related to some older fault represented by the Sardarapat structure. The geo-radar technique was applied to identify anomalies in the supposed concealed fault trace areas. The granulometric analysis helped to determine if the sand dikes could
have been generated by soil liquefaction. The granulometric test values suggest clearly that signs of soil liquefaction caused by a strong earthquake are common within the Sardarapat structure zone. The geo-radar survey identified anomalies of a certain type interpreted as shallow concealed faults. The archeoseismological studies confirmed that a strong earthquake occurred in the period of the 8th-2nd century BC. The data produced by the studies were all introduced into the GIS database further used with ArcGlobe and ArcScene software to compile a 3D GIS model of the Ararat Depression. The new data bear clear evidence that the Sardarapat structure is an active fault with reverse-fault mechanism and a seismogenic zone with the potential of M=6.6-7.0. The latest strong earthquake between the 8th and the 2nd century BC left signs of surface break and soil liquefaction.
Wind energy, solar energy and their hybrid use are frequently considered as solutions for energy provision in the periphery of developing countries. This is also true for the arid mountains of the Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan, where a high potential of respective renewables is expected due to the geographical characteristics. However, the failure of renewable energy projects in comparable regions and the complex topography of mountains introduce the need for preceding assessments of renewable energy resources. Therefore, we analyzed the potential, cost and synergy of wind and solar energy for electricity generation in three local villages. Methodologically, measured climate data, a solar atlas, a scenario of energy requirements, current prices for energy components and literature derived calculation methods were used to allow for an integrative evaluation of potential energy projects. Centralized solar photovoltaic systems resulted in the lowest cost (US$ 3,653 - 4,798 per household), followed by decentralized photovoltaic applications, which amounted to an approximate doubling of the budget to meet minimum energy requirements for basic applications. Wind energy systems were connected to a much higher investment cost (US$ 24,453 – 74,151 per household), which may be regarded as not feasible compared to current budgets of regional energy projects. The analysis of solar radiation and wind speed showed largely similar variations over time indicating low potential for hybrid applications of these resources. We suggest that solar photovoltaic systems, in contrast to wind power, have a high potential as energy alternative in the Eastern Pamirs and comparable mountain areas. The presented method is easily applicable to other regions as a pre-assessment tool to minimize failures of renewable energy projects for sustainable development.
Purpose. Determination of the total alluviation time of tailing dumps in days, defined from the climatic conditions of the region is the target function of the optimization process using the mathematical model based on the logistics description of the technological process of construction of the alluvial technogenic deposits. Accordingly, this article aims to develop a calculation method of tailings consolidation time, which is a major optimization factor of process-dependent parameters of dump tailings alluviation.
Methods. Considering the nature of the processes that cause compaction of saturated soils at different periods of time, the process of consolidation is conventionally distinguished between two phases: primary (or filtration) and secondary due to creep of the soil skeleton. Consolidation characteristics of tailings were established in accordance with the results of compression tests. The authors have used the tailings of of “Lebyazhye” and “Nornickel” tailing dumps in their experiments. The tests were conducted on “ASIS” automated test complex. To control the testing process the authors have used ASIS software of PC. The software provides automated control of the testing process, its logging and transfer test results to other software packages for further processing. 15 series of samples were formed in the humidity range from 4 to 32 % with the corresponding density. In the determination of the coefficients of filtration and secondary consolidation by the method of Casagrande, the parameters necessary for its calculation were found during the processing of the consolidation curve in the compression test results.
Results. According to the results of moisture determination of tails on the border yield equal 32.4% and on the border of rolling-27.2% (plastic index Ip = 5.2) it was found that the properties they have are closest to the loam. Basing on the compression test results the values of consolidation coefficients and consolidation time were calculated.
Conclusions. The authors have proposed a calculation methodology to determine the time required for consolidation of the alluvial layer, and the obtained results can be successfully used for optimization of technological parameters of the alluvium.
Tourism and recreation management and sustainable development of mountain territories are closely interrelated. For that reason the research in this sphere can be of high priority both for these regions and for surrounding areas. Unfortunately, the territorial organization of tourist objects is poorly regulated nowadays. Significant disparities in tourism development are typical for many mountain regions. The situation of its economic and recreational zoning may vary in the context of transformation of socio-economic, political or environmental conditions of territorially-recreational system functioning. Transboundary Altai mountain region includes the neighboring territories of four countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China. It is located in the Altai-Sayan mountain country. This area is actively used for recreational purposes due to its aesthetic and scientific attractiveness. The developed situation has led to the emergence of a number of problems in the current status of recreational environmental management of ecological, economic and social nature. This fact has prompted the authors to this study and determined the ways of optimization of the existing regional recreational environmental management system. One of them is economic zoning of the region, which has been implemented out by the authors. Basing on the common principles, the authors have developed a scheme of recreation and business zoning for the studied region of cross-border Altai. Meanwhile, the territory was ranked by its development prospects of various types of recreational activities, economic use and environment-oriented status. The basis for zoning was the assessment of the degree of recreational favorability of natural environmental components (technological, physiological, psycho-emotional), the mapping of environmental constraints with recreational attractiveness of agricultural lands and the definition of recreation specialization in natural recreational areas. According to the recreational zoning, modern natural complexes of transboundary Altai can be integrated into recreational and environment-oriented, commercial-recreational, environment-oriented and recreational, recreationalcommercial, commercial and environment-oriented. Functional zoning and management in compliance with the selected priority zones is a tool for sustainable development of environmental management. The authors have also proposed the ways of recreational environmental management optimization in the functional zones of transboundary Altai mountain region.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the greenery phytomass of mountainous urban landscapes. The stability of the environment amongst other things is provided by large quantity of masses of living organic substances, including the greenery. To form and support the environmental endurance of local territory a scientific approach based on calculation of parameters of structural elements of the ecosystem is needed. The author’s method suggests determining the limit values of the territorial ecosystem characteristics based on the analysis of its idealized model, i.e. model ecosystem. The idea is supposed to be implemented, in particular, by means of defining the monoculture and determining its life expectancy in the urban environment, assumptions of uniform expenditure and regeneration of renewable resources as well as compliance of equal square plots for monoculture’s placement with its life expectancy. The suggested approach to the idealization of the subject researched includes formation of the model ecosystem based on the considered real ecosystem’s properties. At the same time the optimal allocation of the monoculture at the hypothetical area from the point of maximum assimilation abilities of the environment is accepted. Research results. The analysis of dynamics in respect of change in dendrometric indicators of tree stands allows to display the taxonomic parameters of considered monoculture in relation to its lifespan in the urban environment. Hence to realize the authors’ method of computation for a phytomass stock, one has to do as follows: – consider change in green plants’ productivity as exemplified by the model equivalent of real examined ecosystem; – determine the most viable green higher plant (a monoculture) for the model ecosystem urban landscaping; – consider a sequence of change in phytomass stock of the model ecosystem in terms of the selected monoculture’s age interval; – set the limits of correspondence between the monoculture’s phytomass stock planted within the residential zone and its life expectancy in urban environment; – compute a phytomass stock of the green plants; – compute a phytomass stock of the monoculture in point according to a planted area at the territory of the model and equivalent ecosystems. The research has led to generation of polynomial and allometric equations for assessment of dynamic of greenery’s phytomass stock. Conclusion. The results of modeling enable a researcher to determine e.g. maximum allowable loadings of pollutants on ecosystem in local areas.
In this paper, the neotectonic activity of Bazargan Mountain located in NNW of Kerman City in the central part of Iran has been analysed and mapped by a new method using the tectonic features available in the region. The method that has been used in this research is based on the potentials of Geographical Information System (GIS) and Fishnet model. In this study, the data have been extracted from topographical maps, aerial photographs, Google Earth and field checking. In this regard, morphotectonic indices, mountain front sinuosity, and mountain front faceting have been analysed to determine the tectonic activity of the mentioned region. Having combined these data, the Index of Active Tectonics (IAT) has been defined, based on which the region zoning has been performed. Overall, the results indicate that the western and northwestern side of the region is relatively active tectonically.
Purpose. Sustainable development of the territories is possible at the expense of changing the structure of the
most capital-intensive sphere of the country’s national economy-the mining complex. The goal can be achieved by increasing the number of small mining enterprises, which simultaneously form an active social stratum of entrepreneurs, without which a complete market economy is inconceivable. Methods. The method of solving the problem under consideration is the creation for the small gold-mining enterprises of the processing of gold-containing concentrates on site with the production of the final highly liquid commodity product in the form of ingots of the alloy Dore. The urgency of this approach is determined by high insurance and transportation costs (0.30 rubles / y) and refining (8.40 rubles / yr), discrepancies between supplier and processor in determining the value of commodity concentrates, long-term and unreliable payments for delivered products, low recovery Gold from poor concentrates, which significantly affects the economy of the enterprise. To refine the gold-containing slices, a technological line has been developed in the form of a series of vacuumthermal reactors (for the removal of non-ferrous sulfides of sublimation), a centrifugal des integrator (for the destruction of aggregates formed by locally fused minerals), a magnetic separator (to remove pyrite after thermal decomposition to Magnetic pyrrhotite) and a magneto-liquid separator (to isolate the product, the quality of which corresponds to the requirements of gold refining). With vacuum-thermal sublimation, galena, antimonite, and arsenopyrite completely completely pass through sublimation into metallic vapor and then into condensate. Moreover, the efficiency of the process is the highest, provided that the sublimation and condensation temperature differ by 100-200 ° C due to the suppression of the process of volumetric condensation of metallic vapors. This range of sublimation and condensation temperatures allows both processes to be conducted in the same apparatus, which reduces capital costs and operating costs. Magnetic pyrrhotite can be isolated from the disintegrated cake of vacuum-thermal sublimation by the magnetic separation method practically without loss of gold. To separate from the non-magnetic fraction of the product directed to the melting at the site of its production, a separation process in colloidal solutions of magnetic particles is used - in ferromagnetic liquids quasi-charged by an external non-uniform magnetic field. Results. Finishing of heavy concentrates with the developed technology makes it possible to increase gold extraction by 10.95%. Melting of the heavy fraction of the magneto-liquid separation takes place without the formation of matte, which also reduces the loss of gold.
For the mountain territories of the North Caucasian region experiencing the unfavorable demographical situation, gasification becomes the most effective stimulus promoting the growth of newly erected buildings, increase of tourists stream, simplifying the private subsidiary house holding leading to the reduction of the population migration from the mountain and foothill villages. The pipeline building in the mountain area is considered to be the most complex process in the technological and organizational terms. The mountain area refers to the territories with the especial natural technogenic conditions and the pipelines construction requires the maintenance of the special building norms and safety rules. The mountain landscape is continuously changing under the natural and technogenic factors impact which should be taken into consideration during the pipeline design as the stressed – deformation state of the pipeline wall metals also changes. The main pipelines being under the impact of the aggressive at – pipe medium and suffering the static and dynamic loads are the hazardous productive objects as in the process of their long exploitation they are broken resulting in the heavy economic and ecological consequences. Taking into account the above mentioned information, the problem of the technical and ecological safety provision of the gas lines operating the mountain areas under the multifactor negative impacts is considered to be an actual research – practical task, the decision of which is possible only using the method of the multifactor processes laboratory modeling and creating the program complex of the risk control for the systems. The geological processes impact in the mountains on the pipe metals deformation development in the surface layers was studied and the surface cracks in the cyclic tests were experimentally investigated. The authors conducted the researches of the cyclic crack – stability of the low – alloyed steels (x70) during the simultaneous affect of the aggressive medium and mechanical loads. The obtained data have the practical importance and allow to compare the aggressive medium impact on the corrosion speed and cyclic crack – resistivity loss degree, i. e. to trace the character of dependency between corrosion stability and metal worn – out. The dependence of stress impact in the pipes on the cracks development speed was experimentally obtained and the recommendations in terms of the working stresses reduction in the pipelines walls were elaborated.
A complex of studies of the mechanism of interaction of destroyed geomaterials and the ore-bearing massif was carried out during the development of the site of the mined impregnated ores in the field of the “Komsomolsky” mine. Within the considered ore field, the reserves of the underlying deposit of continuous ores lying at a depth of 550-600 m are extracted. The excavation is performed by systems with filling of the worked out space with hardening mixtures with strength of 4-6 MPa. In the course of work on continuous ores, a network of haul out workings on 371 m horizon and ventilation and filling workings on 300-330 m horizons is
preserved. The initial stress state of the massif is close to hydrostatic. Studies have shown that with the increase in the span of work, the zone of maximum displacements widens, in which the time-dependent roof subsidences continues. The greatest deformations are exposed to rocks in the interval up to 40-60 m from the roof of continuous ores. The size of the subsidence with the maximum near the bottom line is determined by the compression characteristic of the filling massif and its thickness, and the inflection parameters by the deformation properties of the overlying strata. Rational management of the ore-bearing massif in developing the previously mined ore is secured by the developed technology of feeding the filling massif into the broken ore. It has been established that during the full-height excavation of deposits the lower part of the chamber is supported by the broken and ore-gassed ore, while the durability of the upper part is increased due to intensive filling of the spent ore and reducing the time of the chamber being open. The parameters of drilling and blasting operations in breaking the lower part of the room are selected to secure for the broken ore to preserve its flowing and supporting properties. The studies of the properties of the massif with hardening filling showed: - the filling tensile strength is above 0,39 MPa; - the bond of the filling with the concrete walls of the previously installed rooms is not less than сцепление 2,5 MPa; - the bond with the rock wall depends on the durability of the filling and varies from 1,54-1,63 MPa. As a result of the studies high-performing models of chamber-mining systems providing filling the spent ore were developed, securing effective management of the ore-bearing massif in developing the previously mined ore. The technologies provide high durability of the mined ore and allow decreasing losses and contamination of ore.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)