The concentration of radon increased in comparison with the open atmosphere – well-known feature of karst caves. Alpha radiation levels in caves usually exceed atmospheric values by 10-300 times. Distribution of concentration of radon in caves is most controlled by air exchange with the external atmosphere. According to world practice, radon is one of the best natural tracers of air streams in difficult cave systems and is used for allocation of zones on intensity of air exchange. In the article, results of measurements volume activity (VA) and equivalent equilibrium volume of activity (EEVA) of radon in the New Athos cave (Abkhazia, Western Caucasus) are given. Researches conducted in September-October, 2015. VA values in a cave made from 155 Bq/m3 to 3456 Bq/m3; and EEVA values – from 98 Bq/m3 to 2519 Bq/m3. It is established that the major factor influencing concentration of radon in cave cavities is intensity of air exchange with a surface. The analysis of spatial distribution has allowed to allocate three zones which differ under the terms of air exchange: a) well ventilated southern halls (Anakopiya, Mahajirs, Nartaa, Coralloid Gallery) with most VA low values (450-1200 Bq/ m3); b) intermediate cavities between Coralloid Gallery and Apsny’s Hall (including halls of Speleologists and Givi Smyr) with VA of 1500-1700 Bq/m3); c) Apsny Hall with the complicated exchange of air and most the VA high values from 1800 to 3400 Bq/ m3. The transforming influence of the water taking away tunnel on the natural mode of air circulation is shown. The observations made with the opened and closed shutter of a wind-shelter lock in this tunnel have shown that now the lock practically doesn’t obstruct the traffic of air from a cave. Estimated calculation of effective doses of radiation of the personnel working in a cave has been carried out. The dose received by the guide for one excursion makes about 0,012 μSv, and the threshold dose established by the legislation 5 μSv in a year and this dose can be received at the loading exceeding 3-4 excursions a day.
Mountains are of great importance for the geographical environment functioning. The spatial delineation of the mountains from the plains is not easy. According to calculations of the FAO, the area of mountain territories is 22% of earth land. According to the same calculations mountain population of the Earth reaches 13%. The proportion of mountain people in the European community is about 16%. Mountains offer a wide range of resources and services. About half of the world inhabitants in one way or another depend on these services. Mountains are the world's important areas of biodiversity. So, Alpine ecosystems occupy only 3% of the total area of Europe above the upper forest boundary. However, these areas provide habitat for approximately 20% of vascular plants of Europe. Half of especially environmentally valuable agricultural land (High Nature Value farmland) is located in mountainous areas. 15% of the mountain areas in a varying degree represent the environmental objects. Among the important functions of the mountains it is necessary to mark the cultural heritage of mountain areas, with their ethnic and cultural diversity, the importance of mountains in providing water to agricultural land, etc. It is widely accepted that the mountains are the indicators of climate change. The retreat of mountain glaciers is a global phenomenon. Shorter winters, rise of the snow line, drier summers – all this is a clear indication that our environment is influenced by climate change. To fully use the potential of mountain territories and to ensure their sustainable development cooperation at all levels is required: global, regional and local. This requires an interdisciplinary approach that unites scientists and specialists of different directions. However, success in this direction should be provided by the transdisciplinary cooperation of scientists and practitioners, experts and politicians. For the mountain studies to be successful, multidivisional measuring and monitoring network is required with long-term series of observations. A good example of a global-level cooperation forms the Mountain Research Initiative (MRI), which is an interdisciplinary scientific organization, focused on evaluation of global change in mountain regions and using various means of communication and networking.
The territory of the Chechen Republic is one of the oldest oil producing centers in the country and in the world, where oil fields are confined to marginal basins and intermountain basins of the Tersko-Sunzhenskaya upland and Chernogorskaya Monocline. In this work is noted that the intensive long-term development of the oil industry in the foothill areas, creation and operation of numerous oil facilities have led to a massive impact on the environment, transformation of natural landscapes in natural and man-made and man-made ones. Oil Industry Complex of the Chechen Republic has been formed in mountain and foothill areas for almost two centuries, which has led to the formation of a broad range and internally heterogeneous area’s impact of the oil economy on the surrounding natural systems. Moreover, oil production in the Chechen Republic was accompanied by profound changes in the structure of the mountain landscape which contributed to soil deformation, layers displacement, the growth of landslides and earthquakes. Physical and geographical features of oil and gas fields’ development in the Chechen Republic, as a whole, and in the aspect of development and impact of oil industry production are expressed in a complex differentiation of mountain landscapes, in contrast of physical and geographical units of high rank, which is associated with the position of the region at the crossroads of different tectonic formations and faults. It is shown that large oil deposits on the territory of the republic are located in close proximity to the active zones of tectonic faults, where morphostructural conditions have a crucial role in the stability occurrence and development conditions of oil. Schematic map of the main areas of oil and gas fields in the Chechen Republic is compiled. The basic stages of development of the oil complex of the Chechen Republic and features of its impact on the natural environment and landscapes are identified. A table of dynamics of the oil complex development and features of its impact on the environment and landscapes is compiled, where the main areas (regions) of the Chechen Republic which are a subject to anthropogenic impact are identified.
The methodology of risk assessment relies on statistical data and analysis of the causes of consequences of Spitak earthquake in 1988., ranging from damage and destruction of buildings of different types to the loss of life and the occurrence of secondary effects of earthquakes. In the developed technique, special attention is given to the database for seismic risk assessment according to GIS technologies. Numerous figures are grouped in layers that include information about construction (buildings, objects on purpose), infrastructure and life support, soil and seismic conditions of theterritory, active geological processes, etc. Mostly, these data are entered in the form of digital maps and tables. Considering the international experience, a new method of seismic risk assessment of small city areas of Armenia was developed. The main features of the methodology are as follows: a)as indicators of seismic hazard it is recommended to take maps of construction and installation works and not different seismic scenarios; b)to calculate the seismic vulnerability the city territory is divided not into squares, as it is usually done, but into conditional districts by the prevailing constructive types, number of storeys, age of buildings, etc.; c) in the calculation of the seismic vulnerability of buildings, infrastructure and communications, the occurrence of fires and activation of landslides, the calculation of human losses, etc. the main focus is on rich statistical data of 10-point Spitak earthquake of 1988. As a result of applying the proposed method it is possible to draw digital maps of building damage, risk of fire and other secondary processes, risk of failure and damage of the lines of infrastructure and lifelines, casualties, etc.
Summarizes data of various eco-geographical studies in the river basins which allows a comparative analysis of the individual areas of the Azerbaijani part of the Greater Caucasus. These data made it possible to assess the river basin in terms of the impact of geodynamic processes on the intensity of surface runoff, the composition of the outputted material caused by morpho climatic factors, nature of soil and vegetable cover and the spreading breeds and morphometric indicators reflected in character of a river drain. Data show that many rivers of north-eastern and southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus (Gusarchay, Gudialchay, Velvelichay, Talachay, Kurhumchay, Kishchay, Dashagilchay, Turianchay, Goychay, etc.) differ by large quantities of sediment load module. Many factors with high washout rate from the surface of the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus mountain range refer to natural factors contributing to the development of denudation processes. In the formation of mudflows and soil flushing the huge role also belongs to anthropogenic factors, and primarily to agisted stock that causes the destruction of the soil covering. Revealed features of water erosion show that the current state of the soil and vegetation of mountain watersheds requires urgent measures to combat water erosion and increase water regulating capacity of river basins. This becomes more relevant in terms of improving the sectoral structure of the economy, development of tourism in the mountainous areas of Azerbaijan, as indicated by many researchers. At first glance the situation does not look very catastrophic, but it is necessary to consider that in the coming years active development of economic activities with the involvement of a large number of labor force, creation of new settlements and the expansion of existing ones is planned which can complicate the humanitarian situation in the mountainous areas of Azerbaijan in the event of natural and man-made disasters.
The significance of intermontane depressions in the Greater Caucasus is rather high for its population, because they include most of high-up populated settlements. Territories of the North-Jurassic depression are the most developed and hold several large communities of mining industry. The number of populated settlements in the areas of the Central depression is rather low, except some touristic centres. This article reviews peculiarities of the hydrometeorological regime of the intermontane depressions. There are two definite groups of depressions in climatic terms such as dry, warm - in the North-Jurassic and Southern depressions and wet, cold - in the Central depression. Four types of depressions have been identified in terms of meteorological type, in particular, cold-humid, cold-dry, warm-humid and warmdry. In general, depressions of the Western part of the Greater Caucasus are fed by rain more than by snow, meanwhile the situation in the Central part is completely different, its depressions are more snow-dependent. Glacier-fed is insignificant for rivers of the North-Jurassic depression, it is spotted only in depressions, which are situated in the Northern part of the Lateral and the Main ridges. Two types of depressions have been identified in terms of hydrological regime: with «local» and with «transit» flow. It is shown that warm-humid depressions with «local» and with «transit» river flow are the most favourable for population’s permanent living and for agricultural activity. It was identified that cold depressions are hardly suitable for organization of permanent settlements. Nevertheless, it is possible to build various recreation and sports facilities considering annual temperature regime and higher thickness of snow in winter. Warm depressions have more favourable conditions for life, however, they have limited water resources and this shall be taken into account when planning their development.
The article describes the calculation method of fragmentation size of rocks in the top layer of a career ledge with account of the fracture of rocks and crushing effect of explosion of borehole charges. One of the main technological processes of extraction of solid minerals is breaking and crushing of rocks by blasting dispersed charges of industrial explosives. Efficient crushing of rocks by explosion ensures the effective implementation of all subsequent technological operations of mining industry. Transmission of explosion energy into a massif and its distribution in mountain mass are multi-zone and multi-phase physical processes. The area of crushing form crushing zones as its part with different boundary conditions and positions in relation to the charges. Each zone and each phase in a zone requires an individual theoretical approach and particular mathematical apparatus, which can describe the process of development phase and determine the final results of rocks crushing by action of this phase of the process. The most commonly used blasthole charges of industrial explosives do not provide consistent crushing of rocks throughout the surrounding volume. Explosion blasthole charge have no significant impact on the zone of the rock mass, which adjoins to the empty part of hole of a charge, and the destruction of the array in most cases is due to the splitting of rocks by natural separateness. Determination of granulometric composition of blasted rock mass, which is formed in the volume, adjacent to empty part at the design stage of an industrial explosion, is a separate task. The article describes the first proposed factor of rocks factionalism for different categories of fracture, which has become a base for development a table of coefficient of factionalism. The article describes the first proposed factor of rocks factionalism for different categories of fracture, which has become a base for development of a table of factionalism coefficients. A computer program was developed for determination of granulometric composition and oversized ore in the process of crushing of fractured rocks by the explosion in the upper layer of a quarry ledge. The article demonstrates the analysis of calculated results of fractured rocks crushing and oversized ore in the upper layer of the quarry ledge in five categories of fracturing of the rocks.
Power supply of remote mountain territories with difficult climatic conditions is very problematic task. Besides construction and operation of the electricity transmission airlines (ETAL) the questions of preventive tests and diagnostics of existing lines are also very important. The principles of the creation the system intended for expeditious detection of malfunctions characteristic for power supply air-lines in real time are considered in this work. Block diagrams of the knots which are a part of the system are developed and the algorithm of their interaction is described. The modern element base is used. The system is constructed on the basis of functionally finished blocks. The modular principle of the organization allows to create the information networks intended for controlling the condition of the system of power supply lines with the difficult topological structure. It is shown in the article that information network gives the chance quickly define emergency sites of power supply system to keep account and control the quality of the electric energy transmission. The monitoring of power lines considered in the article allows quickly reveal possible accidents and simplifies the process of power networks service that would increased reliability and safety of power supply. The offered schemes could find application in the power supply systems in remote mountain territories with difficult climatic conditions where the probability of line breaks is high because the rock falls, avalanching and etc. is frequent.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)