This article describes UNESCO’s work on biodiversity – the fundamental pillar of ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services required for livelihoods and sustainable development. The most relevant issue of biodiversity crisis requires a global study and a set of practical actions in order to ensure the preservation of existing biodiversity and reduce the pressure on natural ecosystems. At the International Roundtable Meeting, which took place in Vladikavkaz in May 19-20, 2015, the program of the VIII International Conference “Science, Education and Advocacy Activities – Basis for Sustainable Development of Mountain Territories”, was discussed in details and it will take place in Vladikavkaz, the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russian Federation during 21-23 October, 2015. The initiatives of UNESCO were considered, which in collaboration with other international organizations and Member States UNESCO, made a significant contribution to the implementation of international programs in support of biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.
At the present level of accumulation and generalization of knowledge in the Caucasus, implementation of projects in the field of sustainable development of mountain regions in dire need of comprehensive socially-oriented concepts, including the latest models and views, not only of nature and natural resources, but also the most important actors and rules by which the resources are used and the development is carried out. Currently, there are three important conceptual approaches for complex investigations of mountain territories for sustainable development: 1. Componentwise analysis and synthesis of nature, economy and population of the mountain territory. 2. Problem-oriented approach. 3. Socio-oriented approach. The most well-known and thoroughly developed approach to the analysis of resources and institutions is a model of socio-ecological system, presented in the works of Nobel laureate (E. Ostrom). In the current difficult financing conditions in the Caucasus, the development and application of conceptual models must adapt accordingly for specific projects. These projects are invited to study the stability of the Caucasus at the community level, as well as work on the reissue of the book “Alps-Caucasus: Topical problems of the constructive geography of mountain states. 1980”.
The article is devoted to an actual problem of introduction of sustainable development ideas in geography school program. In normative documents by preparation of federal educational standards (FSSES) the role of geography is changed by ecosystem informative model. Its opportunities in formation of interrelation understanding of the natural, social and economic and political phenomena aren’t even mentioned. The chairman of the Board of trustees of the Russian Geographical Society V.V. Putin marked out the fact of geographical illiteracy of the population of Russia especially intolerant for inhabitants of mountain regions of Russia, where environment is especially vulnerable when spoke at the XV congress. Overcoming of noted failure the authors suggest to carry out by studying the regional textbooks of geography. The textbook about Altay territory is used as an example of one of significant agrarian regions of Russia. The important element of acquaintance of school students with a problem of a sustainable development is the illumination of a role of geography and geographers in the territorial organization of society. It is participation in development of regional programs, site planning of large tourist and recreational complexes, such as «Turquoise Katun», schemes of territorial planning. The role of school geography in promotion of mountain policy of the regional authorities is highly important.
The study of various groups of landscapes completed in their classification, which allows theoretically to comprehend and summarise the patterns of development, structure, operation, placement landscapes. Mountain structure of the greater Caucasus is characterized by a great diversity of natural landscapes. It is composed of sedimentary rocks are Paleogene, Neogene, Cretaceous, Jurassic age. The Northern slope of the Central Caucasus is an edge of the Ciscaucasian plates involved in the latest uplifting. Here are traced the Hercynian folded structures. Delays in raising of mountains or their weakening has led to the development of Mature topography and the formation of surfaces alignment. The Neogene-Quaternary uplift and cooling of climate in the Northern hemisphere led to the development of the greater Caucasus mountain glaciers. That led to the emergence of distinct forms of mountain-glacial relief – a sharp, serrated crests, karlingi, cart, trough valleys, and so on. the Main reason is the mountainous nature of the terrain leading to the existence of a vertical zonality of all the elements and components of nature.
The paper provides a brief analysis of the recommendations of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO for the project “Western Caucasus”. The outstanding universal value of the World Heritage “Western Caucasus” is threatened in connection with plans for further development by the owners of private recreation ski resorts. It is necessary to take urgent measures to ensure the sustainable development strategy of the most valuable mountain territories of the Mzymta river basin in terms of biodiversity conservation. The key to preserve the unique ecosystems is the fulfillment of n. 4 “Action Plan for the restoration of the Mzymta river, integrated environmental monitoring and preparation of countervailing measures in the framework of environmental support of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi”, prepared in accordance with the recommendations of UNESCO experts and the fulfillment of which will direct the vector of development in the direction of sustainable, science-based recreational activities, legally permissible in protected areas of the highest rank.
The article discusses the development of a method foothill-mountainous area for the vineyards and suggested multifunction device for the mechanization of a number of process steps for the care of the vines and the removal of the aisle grapes for the sustainable development of mountain territories of the Republic of Dagestan. The essence of the problem boils down to the need for the development of orchards and vineyards, mountain and foothill areas, taking into account specific factors and objectives for the conservation of topsoil and the erosion processes prevention as well as compliance with the technical regulations to bookmark industrial vineyards and ensure a high level of mechanization of labor-intensive processes. To solve these problems proposed alternative technology development of chips for vineyards taking into account their slope. The matter point of the problem reduces to the replacement of stepped terraces with construction of service passages with the predetermined distance from each other. With a view to the partial mechanization of a number of technological steps for the care of greenery that are placed on the slopes of the proposed scheme, the authors developed a multifunctional device for partial mechanization of a number of technological operations. In conclusion, it is said, that poor state of the technology provision, existing in most households, makes the task of the transition to the new technology with the use of modern agricultural machinery as one of the top priorities in agricultural production. In this context, the issues of organization of accelerated production of agricultural machinery, tools and energy for the transition to modern technologies for the sustainable development of mountain areas acquire a particular importance at both the regional and federal level.
At the present time and in the long view, in the depletion of world reserves of solid minerals, budget and national security of the Russian Federation will increasingly depend on the pace of timely reproduction of the mineral resource base and its effective commercial operation. The mining industry is a basis of socio-economic development of many mountainous regions of our country, which proportion exceeds 50% of Russian territory. The mining of mineral resources in many territorial entities of the Russian Federation characterized by mountainous and foothill relief is a main industry sector, forming regional budget. At the same time, exploitation of mineral resources in the mountainous regions of Russia associated with change of environmental status, violation indigenous people lifestyle and industrial development with simultaneous reducing of historical trades. This indicates that only coordinated implementation of sustainable development conception of mineral industry and mountainous areas at the level of its operation will let efficient expansion and development of mineral raw material base.
The article describes the researches and analysis of hazard processes in mountain ecosystems and evaluation of the effectiveness of its operation with the use of mathematical models. The purpose of the simulation is aimed at providing the required security and the results of the quantitative analysis of the studied processes, are necessary to justify the appropriate activities. A qualitative analysis data of an incident tree is used - the minimum combinations of the initial assumptions and assessment of their significance are primarily identified in it a. Addressing the causes of circuits consisting of the most important prerequisites is the easiest and cheapest way to achieve a given level of safety. A preliminary assessment studies of numerical characteristics as a cerebral event of incident tree, as well as the central event of their outcomes tree are important in the researches. The task of the justification of the best activities carried out only with the help of the models under consideration such as “tree”. To determine the effect expected from the implementation of specific technology or organizational activities, the calculation of new (decreased) values of the probabilities of occurrence related prerequisites of accidents tree or destructive choices and the impact of the release of energy flows and matter is carried out.
In the mountainous areas conditions of the North Caucasus and the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania in particular, the most important renewable source of the electric power are small hydroelectric power stations (MGES), with the power up to 10 MW, using hydro-electric resources (HER) of the mountain rivers which energy potential in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania is estimated at 2850 million kW·h. During use of MGES, working without permanent operation personnel for ensuring static stability of operation of the synchronous generators (SG), it is necessary to use the simplest system of automatic excitation control (AEC) with the regulator of the proportional action (PA) reacting to a deviation of voltage of the SG stator (AEC PA). The most important parameter of system of AEC PA is the coefficient of intensification of system of AEC on kU voltage. Now for AEC PA kU value is established on the AEC settings on the SG test model with a power from 2000 to 100000 MW: kU =50 – for thyristor system of excitation and kU =15 – for electromachine system of excitation. Methods of calculation of static stability of work of SG with AEC PA for generators of big power are known. In relation to MGES generators of low power with an electric network of small extent approbation of the above techniques and calculation of area of steady values of coefficients of intensification of kU of the AEC PA regulator for voltage deviation on conclusions of SG of MGES weren’t carried out. The method of calculation of area of steady values of coefficient of intensification of k0U on voltage deviation on MGES generator conclusions with AEC PA is developed. It’s offered the quantitative index of stability of system with AEC PA in the form of a calculated value of coefficient of a stock of stability Recommendations about providing the allowing to define the coefficient of intensification of k0U providing stability of work of system at a design stage of MGES demanded k0U are offered. The technique is approved in relation to MGES “Fasnalskaya” and can be used in AEC PA system of similar MGES of mountain territories.
The article is devoted to the problem of improving the design technology of mining works on the basis of data monitoring of the rock mass excavation. The test on Malka’s career hardware- software complex for remote monitoring of the excavation process shows a possibility of measurements in industrial conditions of new options and quantities, that have not been measured before, but can characterize the efficiency of energy use in different excavation pits. The expediency of a new approach to the design technology of mining works on the basis of monitoring of energy parameters of the engine head, lifting rotation in operation and standby is substantiated. It is suggested to recognize the standby and operation modes with the help of established criteria, and to characterize the efficiency of energy use in different excavation pits.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)