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Published on 15 November 2022

Agro-ecological typology of agricultural land use in the arid steppe of the Altai Krai

Leonid M. Tatarintsev, Oleg E. Merzlyakov, Tulegen E. Karbozov, Fariza K. Koshzhanova

Introduction. Issues related to increasing the sustainability of agricultural land in the Altai Krai are very relevant, modern and practically significant, since about 90 % of the territory is more or less subject to degradation processes. They reduce soil fertility and, as a result, the productivity of agricultural land, which is largely due to the landscape specificity of the territory. The solution to the problem is possible on the basis of adaptive landscape land management, which is the basis for organizing sustainable agricultural land use. When designing agricultural landscapes, on the one hand, we take into account and preserve the natural properties of the territory, and on the other hand, we limit the anthropogenic impact on it. By designing sustainable, capable of self-regulation and self-reproduction of agricultural landscapes, it is possible to optimize agricultural land use. The purpose of the study: to conduct an agro-ecological typology of agricultural lands (agro-landscapes) of the arid steppe of the Altai Krai to optimize the existing agricultural land use and increase its sustainability. Research methods. System analysis has become the main scientific method for analyzing the relationships and mutual influences within landscapes. When studying and comparing the physical and geographical characteristics of the territory, comparative geographical and ecological landscape methods were used using the cartographic method and GIS technologies. Research results. The allocation of agro-ecological groups of lands is based on the leading agro-ecological factors (moisture supply, erosion, waterlogging, periodic flooding, salinization, alkalinity), the degree of their manifestation and related limiting factors. As a zonal agro-ecological group, we identified upland lands, which occupy 22 % of the study area. Slope (or erosional) lands in the arid steppe occupy a significant proportion (59 % of the area) and are located on slopes with a steepness of up to 3°, in some places 5°. Taking into account the wide spatial development of deflation processes (44 % of the subzone area), the authors of the work singled out a special agroecological group of lands – deflationary lands in the composition of eroded lands. The deflationary lands were divided into three agro-ecological groups: weakly, medium and strongly deflated lands. Insignificant territories (less than 1% of the subzone area) are combined into a group of waterlogged lands, which differ in the degree of hydromorphism and have a common feature – ecological waterlogging, which makes it difficult or excludes the possibility of cultivating crops. The territories in the soil cover of which solonets occupy more than 10 % of the area are combined into a group of solonetz lands, which occupy slightly more than 4 % of the area of the zone. The group of solonetzic lands is divided into two parts – solonetzic-automorphic and solonetzic-hydromorphic. Also, a group of lands of the ravine-beam complex was identified, which are limited, since the depth of the dissection of the territory does not exceed 10 m, and the density is insignificant or weak (1-2,5 km and more than 2,5 km). In nine municipal districts that are part of the arid steppe, the identified types of land are found in different proportions. For the sustainable development of agricultural land use, its optimization is necessary, associated with a reduction in the area of agricultural land by 14,5 thousand hectares with fluctuations in districts from 0,7 (Suetsky district) to 2.3 thousand hectares (in Blagoveshchensky and Rubtsovsky districts) and an increase in the area of industrial land (by 12,4 thousand hectares) due to the allocation of protected zones along railways and roads, green protective zones around settlements, as well as shelterbelt forest belts. Conclusions 1. An agro-ecological typology of agricultural lands in the arid steppe of the Altai Krai was produced; 2. It has been established that the main limiting factors affecting the productivity of agricultural land are the degree of deflation, relief, the presence and density of hydrographic objects, the degree of waterlogging and salinity, which significantly affect landscapes under different management conditions; 3. For the municipal districts of the arid steppe, the change in the ratio of lands was calculated, taking into account limiting factors, as well as the stability of agricultural landscapes as a result of the transformation of the structure of sown areas, lands, and crop rotations; 4. The obtained research results can be used by regional and municipal authorities in long-term planning and management of land resources, their economic assessment, and collection of fiscal payments, as well as agricultural producers in the organization and optimization of agricultural landscapes.

CityBarnaul, Tomsk, Nur-Sultan
CountryRussia, Republic of Kazakhstan
UDC631:338.43
Issue2022, № 3 (Т. 14)
Key wordsAltai Krai, arid steppe, agroecological land typology, sustainability of agrolandscapes, agroecological factors, agroecological assessment
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Categories: Articles

Tags: Алтайский край, засушливая степь, агроэкологическая типология земель, устойчивость агроландшафтов, агроэкологические факторы, агроэкологическая оценка.

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ISSN 1998-4502 (Print)                                                            ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)