In the work, on the basis of our own field and laboratory studies of the components of the environment, the regularities of the natural and technogenic metal content of the territory of the Middle Urals were established; the mining complex was assessed as a source of pollutant flows into the environment; the formation of flows of pollutants in the environment under the influence of technogenic and mineral formations has been investigated; it is proposed to divide all pollutants, according to their source of entry into the environment, into atmospheric and hydrogenic flows of mining complexes. The problem is that the methodologies for setting maximum permissible emissions (MPE) and normative permissible discharge (NPD) are practically the same. They cover the assessment of the background concentrations of pollutants in the studied media, the assessment of pollution sources, the establishment on the basis of the dilution (mixing) processes of the predicted concentrations (at the border of the sanitary protection zone or in the control section) and the development of the permissible level of the impact of source into the element of the environment in g / h or in t / year with guaranteed quality assurance). Unfortunately, the methodologies used in standardizing the impact of mining and metallurgical complexes on the environment do not take into account a number of aspects, mainly geochemical, which often leads to the formalization of this process with subsequent negative environmental consequences. The objects of research considered in this work were the mining and metallurgical complexes of the Urals, located on its eastern slope in the basin of the river. Tours and including iron ore (the cities of Kachkanar, N. Tagil), copper ore (the cities of Krasnouralsk, Kirovgrad, Pervouralsk) complexes and environmental components (atmosphere, geo-hydro- and biosphere)) within them. The subject of research is the most characteristic ore and associated metals of the Ural deposits: Fe, Cr, Mn, V, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Pb, As, Hg, Cd. The aim of the work was to study the flows of pollutants in natural and man-made geosystems of the Middle Urals and to develop a methodological basis for assessing the impact of mining complexes on the environment.
|Issue||2021, № 2 (Т. 13)|
|Key words||mining and metallurgical complex, environmental impact assessment, pollutants, environmental damage, biosphere, background concentrations of elements.|