Introduction. The air quality problems facing the world today become aggravated by rapid urban population growth, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion and a phenomenal growth in the number and time of car use. In general, geoecological pollution of the territory is caused by stationary and mobile sources. The industry in the most of the regions today is experiencing degradation to one degree or another. At the same time, operating plants and factories, especially those associated with the processing of toxic heavy metals, are mostly equipped with filter systems that significantly reduce the territory pollution. On the other hand, in recent years, road transport has taken the first place in terms of urban areas pollution. Road traffic is the largest source of many air pollutants that are harmful to health, but emissions from internal combustion engines are not the only source of pollution. Car tyres and parts of brake systems are also a significant source of environmental pollution. Thus, the assessment of the level of environmental pollution by road transport seems to be a very urgent task. Research methods. Experimental research methods were used in the work. The authors introduced a new integral index of atmospheric air pollution Zatm. The assessment of the level of atmospheric air pollution was carried out using the Ecolab gas analyzer based on a specially developed measurement technique. The data of the existing foreign works on the assessment of environmental pollution by tyre wear products were also considered as the source material. The obtained data were extrapolated to the territory of Vladikavkaz city. Map compilation was carried out using geoinformation modeling methods. Research results. As part of the study of tyre wear for the territory of Vladikavkaz city, it was found that about 258 tons of tyre wear products are emitted into the city’s environment per year, which is 860 grams per head of population. On the basis of the obtained data on the actual content of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons С1-С10 and nitrogen and sulfur dioxides in the atmospheric air, a distribution map of the integral index of atmospheric air pollution Zatm in Vladikavkaz city was constructed. The map identified the sections of roads that are subjected to the greatest pollution Discussion. Traffic optimization models, in particular, “green corridors”, are currently being proposed as mitigation measures for pollutant emissions from road transport. Based on the analysis of the obtained data, which form the basis of the constructed maps of atmospheric air pollution in Vladikavkaz city, Recommendations for reducing the ecological load of road transport on the environment have been developed. Conclusion. Today, when most stationary sources (plants, factories, mining and processing centers, etc.) have practically stopped their activity or equipped with special treatment systems (filters, modern technologies), it is mobile pollution sources that emit the largest amount of pollutants. Road transport forms a high level of load on the geo-ecological state of the territory environment. The analysis of the obtained results made it possible to develop Recommendations for reducing pollutant emissions from road transport, which, due to the evergrowing number of vehicles and, as a result, increasing environmental pollution, is an actual result of the work. Resume. On the basis of the obtained data on the actual content of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen and sulfur dioxides in the atmospheric air, a distribution map of the introduced integral index of atmospheric air pollution Zatm in Vladikavkaz city was constructed. The map identifies the sections of roads that are subjected to the greatest pollution. In addition to the exhausts of internal combustion engines, car tyres are also considered as a pollution source and the assessment is given according to the amount of emissions generated by their wear particles. Recommendations are given to reduce the ecological load of road transport on the environment. In the future, it is planned to carry out experimental investigations to study the dynamics of emissions, as well as to study the concentrations of other pollutants.
|Issue||2022, № 4 (Т. 14)|
|Key words||ecology, road transport, environmental pollution, harmful emissions.|