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Published on 09 February 2023

Modern agro-climatic conditions of mountain landscapes in the North Caucasus

Ibragim A. Kerimov, Luiza R. Bekmurzaeva

Introduction. For the first time, the problem of global warming was officially announced in 1976 by the World Meteorological Organization. The most complete picture of ongoing climate change, causes, consequences and response strategies can be obtained from the reports of the IPCC (intergovernmental group of experts). There are many works devoted to regional climate changes, including those in the North Caucasus. However, these works do not reflect the modern agro-climatic conditions of the mountainous landscapes of the North Caucasus which occupy 27% of the territory and are actively involved in agriculture. Aim - analysis of modern agro-climatic conditions of the mountain landscapes of the North Caucasus in a changing climate. Materials and research methods. To assess agro-climatic conditions, traditional agro-climatic indicators were used, such as annual and average monthly air temperatures; sums of active temperatures exceeding 5 and 10°С; dates of stable transition of the average daily air temperature through 0, 5 and 10°C in spring and autumn; the duration of the period with an average daily temperature of 0, 5, 10 ° C, the average temperature of the coldest and warmest months of the calendar year, annual precipitation, hydrothermal coefficient. The processing of the material was carried out by methods of mathematical statistics using Excel spreadsheets. Processed data on temperature and precipitation in the period from 1961 to 2020 for six meteorological stations. Research results. For the period from 1961 to 2020, within the mountain landscapes of the North Caucasus, there is an increase in annual air temperature compared to the previous period by an average of 0,5 °C. Against the background of an increase in annual temperature, such agro climatic indicators as the sum of active temperatures increased, exceeding 5o and 10oC by 6 and 13%, respectively. The stable transition of the average daily air temperature through 0, 5, 10°C has also undergone changes. In spring, on average, this happens 5, 1, 6 days earlier. Whereas in autumn, on the contrary, 3, 1, 5 days later. The duration of the period with an average daily temperature of 0, 5, 10 °C increased by an average of 10, 3, 13 days, respectively. Precipitation increased at all meteorological stations, with the exception of the Klukhorsky cross, by an average of 45 mm. The hydrothermal coefficient, which characterizes precipitation during the growing season,
remained within the limits of natural fluctuation, except for the Klukhorsky cross, where it decreased due to a decrease in precipitation during the warm period. Discussion. The analysis of the agro-climatic conditions of the mountain landscapes of the North Caucasus for 1961-2020. revealed trends in the growth of annual temperature and precipitation, however, the moisture supply of the active vegetation period, estimated using the HTC, remained unchanged. Our results correlate with the official data of Rosgydromet, published in the Report on the peculiarities of the climate of the Russian Federation for 2021. Conclusion. The study allows us to state that in the mountainous landscapes of the North Caucasus, climatic changes proceed according to the scenario of an increase in air temperature and precipitation. As a result, agro-climatic indicators have changed: the sum of active temperatures has increased, exceeding 5o and 10oC and the duration of the period with an average daily temperature of 0, 5, 10oC, the dates of a stable transition through 0, 5, 10oC have changed, precipitation has increased, but the HTC has remained within the natural fluctuation . The stability of the HTC indicator indicates the stability of landscape boundaries, despite the observed changes in agro-climatic indicators. Resume. The observed climatic changes within the mountain landscapes of the North Caucasus contribute to an increase in the productivity of agricultural production by improving the conditions for heat and moisture supply to the territory. Suggestions for practical application and direction for future research. The results of the study can be useful for updating the schemes of agricultural zoning of the mountainous territories of the North Caucasus, as well as for developing land use schemes based on contour farming, which reduces the risks of adverse natural phenomena, including those caused by climate change.

Issue2022, № 4 (Т. 14)
Key wordsmodern climatic changes, agro-climatic conditions, temperature, precipitation, hydrothermal coefficient.
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Categories: Articles

Tags: осадки, современные климатические изменения, агроклиматические условия, температура, гидротермический коэффициент.


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