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Trends in the development of ski tourism in Karachay-Cherkessia

Matvey S. Oborin

Introduction. T he sphere of ski tourism is one of the priorities of state policy, which is expressed in the following factors: comprehensive restructuring of the tourism sector; development of large infrastructure projects; introduction of a mandatory system of classification of tourist facilities by location; formation of new ski trails and beaches. The strategic direction of the development of the ski tourism sector within the framework of the development of internal and external travel is the growth of consolidation of all territories of the Russian Federation, based on the development of transport infrastructure, purposeful activity of the state, establishing the principles and amounts of fees for various services, transportation of passengers and cargo, export and import of goods, subsidizing interregional transportation. The purpose of the study is to determine the strategic priorities for the development of ski tourism in the world and Russia. Materials and methods of research. Theoretical foundations of the Russian school of strategizing, general logical research methods, system and situational approaches, modeling of economic processes. Research results and discussion. The study identified the main problems and ways to solve them within the framework of sustainable development of the mountainous territories of Russia. It is determined that with global transformation processes, the country has a wide range of opportunities for the development of tourist territories, while it is necessary to develop comprehensive programs for the development of the tourism industry, effective marketing solutions in the context of strengthening the interaction of the country's tourist facilities with international tourist markets. Conclusion. Comprehensive solutions to the key problems of mountain territories require the development of a unified system of classification and accessibility of tourist information, the creation of a modern regulatory framework for tourism development, the formation of large ski complexes and territories that operate all year round and are accessible to the average citizen, the development of environmental aspects in the tourism sector.

Number of views: 50

The effect of ferrous sulfate, sodium sulfide and their mixtures on the flotation of sphalerite in the alkaline medium

Zay Ya Kyaw, Zaw Oo Htet, Dmitriy V. Shekhirev, Boris E. Goryachev

Introduction. The quality of the enrichment process is affected by many factors, ranging from the characteristics of the raw materials supplied to the enrichment plant to the enrichment technology and the agents used. Strict process control is required at all stages from mining to concentrate extraction. Copper-zinc ores of Russian deposits are difficult for enrichment due to high mass fraction of pyrite in ore and fine irregular intergrowth of sulfide minerals between themselves and with rock minerals. The practice of enrichment of copper-zinc ores has established that it is impossible to obtain high-quality zinc and pyrite concentrates without adding sphalerite flotation modifier agents to various flotation operations. To improve the flotation activity of sphalerite, copper sulphate is used as an activation additive in the enrichment process chain. Purpose of work. To study the effect of sulfhydryl collectors on flotation of sulfide minerals, and development of
innovative technologies of flotation of copper-zinc and polymetallic ores considering the acidity of the environment. Materials and methods. In the experimental part of the work, several methods of materials and agents preparing were used, a variety of equipment was used, as well as methods of analysis and processing of results. The material composition and grain size distribution of sphalerite was studied using the MLA System Quanta. X-ray phase analysis of sphalerite was carried out at the University of science and technology "MISIS" in Research Laboratory of ultra-hard materials on Rigaku Geigerflex device using monochromatized CuKα-radiation. Thermographic studies were carried out using a Q -1500D derivatograph. The following flotation agents were used in the work: collector - butyl potassium xanthate, foam agent MIBC, medium regulator - lime, modifiers - iron sulfate, sodium sulphide and mixture of iron sulfate and sodium sulphide. Flotation experiments were carried out on the laboratory flotation machine FL-189 G. Results. The kinetics of sphalerite flotation is characterized not by a single value of the flotation kinetics constant for all flotation mineral grains, but by a set of such values corresponding to quite certain fractions of sphalerite extracted in the foams product. It has been found that in the initial period of flotation the mineral grains with a high value of the flotation velocity constant are flotated, and in the final period of flotation the grains of the same mineral with a low value of the same flotation velocity constant are flotated. Discussion. The introduction of iron (II) sulphate into the mineral slurry leads to a redistribution of the flocculated mineral between medium and lightly flocculated fractions. This indicates that iron (II) sulphate acts as an activator for sphalerite flotation. At a low flow rate of this agent, the proportion of medium flotable fractions increases and the proportion of easily and hardly flotable fractions decreases. With increase in the agent consumption up to 400 g/t and more, the opposite picture is observed - the proportion of medium flotable fraction decreases and the proportion of easily
flotable fraction increases in flocculated sphalerite. The replacement of iron (II) sulphate by sodium sulphate has the opposite effect on the flotation spectrum of sphalerite. The introduction of a mineral suspension of a solution of sodium sulfide and iron (II) sulfate into the liquid phase at a consumption of 200 g/t of each agent leads to a decrease in the proportion of easily and especially medium floatable fractions of the mineral and an increase in the proportion of difficultly floatable fractions. Conclusions: 1. An increase in the pH of pulp liquid phase leads to a decrease in the extraction of zinc concentrate in the foam product during flotation with butyl xanthate. 2. The introduction of a solution of sodiu

Number of views: 50

Prospects of nitrogen removal from mine drainage by micro-algae in northern environments

Vera A. Matveeva, Jaume Bech, Aleksandr S. Danilov

The hydrochemical studies assessed the area affected by one of the largest mineral pro-cessing facilities of the Kola Peninsula (Russia), the Olcon Mining and Processing Plant. Based on the results of the laboratory analyzes, nitrate ion was found to be the major contaminant of the quarry waters. Discharge of untreated waste water leads to nitrogen pollution of the natural waters of the region and, as a consequence, disruption of the functioning of hydroecosystems. To address the environmental issue, the authors proposed an effective method for the biological treatment of nitrogencontaining mine drainage. The key point is the implementation of the Chlorella kessleri microalgae into the existing treatment system. The research describes in vitro studies of the purification process on model solutions and presents the major findings. Besides, a technological solution is proposed for the application of the treatment technique for the studied pit waters. The higher efficiency of waste water purification will not only prevent further pollution of natural waters but also raise the living standards of local communities by improving the environmental situation in the area. The outcomes of theoretical studies and laboratory experiments open up the prospect of using the biological treatment technique for nitrogen removal from wastewater in the polar mining regions.

Number of views: 47

Bioclimatic variants of the Northeastern Transbaikalia Orobiome

Maxim V. Bocharnikov

Introduction. The spatial structure of the biota at the regional level of its organization is most closely associated with the climate, expressed primarily through bioclimatic indicators. In the geography of the botanical diversity of Northeastern Transbaikalia, which is characterized by a complex organization of vegetation cover, the influence of a number of important gradients of climatic conditions is expressed. The identification of these gradients was the purpose of this research. Methods and materials of the research. The methodological basis of the research was the ecosystem approach to the identification and evaluation of phytocenotic diversity associated with ecological and geographical factors that determine its spatial differentiation. The geographic and genetic classification of plant communities was used to identify the typological diversity of vegetation. The climatic characteristics of the Northeastern Transbaikalia was given on the basis of key bioclimatic indicators (global model BioClim). The bioclimatic substantiation of the spatial structure was carried out taking into account the principles of identifying the diversity of ecosystems at the regional level. Mapping of the bioclimatic variants of the orobiome was compiled using the clustering of units according to the average values of parameters by the k-means method. Research results and discussion. A joint analysis of vegetation and climate made it possible, for the first time for Northeastern Transbaikalia, to determine the internal structure of ecosystem diversity that develops in the mountains within the framework of an orobiome. It also allowed mapping the spatial organization of ecosystems at the regional level on a climate basis. Using the cluster analysis of climatopes of the main vegetation formations, subdivisions of the orobiome (bioclimatic variants) are proposed. Two variants of the Ist order are expressed through the structure of the vegetation cover of mountain systems: the relatively low Patom highland in the north, and more massive ridges of the strongly dissected North Baikal and Stanovoy highlands in the south. Variants of the IInd order, differing in the degree of continentality and moisture conditions, have specificity in the altitudinal belts and sub-belts of vegetation. Diversity within belts and sub-belts, expressed through the typological diversity of vegetation at the level of formations, classes, and groups of associations, is marked by climatic differences in bioclimatic variants of the IIIrd order. The diversity of climatic conditions that determine the phytocoenotic diversity of Northeastern Transbaikalia is characterized through integral bioclimatic types of orobiome, determined by temperature and moisture supply. Three ombroclimatic types were distinguished by continentality conditions. The influence of the complex orographic structure of a vast mountainous territory, as well as zonal and sectoral patterns in changing climatic conditions, is characterized in their change from continental to extracontinental in according to the degree of climate continentality. The same factors determine the identification of three thermoclimatic types, which are associated with the distinguished altitudinal vegetation belts (mountain tundra, subalpine, mountain taiga). The temperate cold type is expressed in the intermountain depressions and low mountains of the Patom highlands, the cold type is associated with the middle mountains and the lower part of the high mountains (mountain taiga and subalpine belts), and the extra cold type is distinguished in the high mountains of the most massive ridges – Kodar and Kalar. Conclusion. Quantitative interpretation of the climatic conditions of the bioclimatic variants of the orobiome made it possible to give an integral evaluation of the climatic conditionality of the development of basic vegetation formations, the altitudinal belt di

Number of views: 66

The alpine natural park "Ak Cholushpa" as an ecotourist interest area

Natalia M. Legacheva, Irina N. Rotanova

Introduction. Ak Cholushpa Nature Park is a specially protected natural area located in the mountainous part of the Altai Republic. The park was established in 2011 on the initiative of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) on the territory of the Ulagan district, near the state borders of Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China. The Nature Park borders on two sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Golden Mountains of Altai" – the Altai State Natural Biosphere Reserve and Lake Teletskoye. The space of the natural park has a wide range of objects of tourist interest. Sustainable eco-tourism is based here on natural and archaeological sites that create the image of the natural park, as well as its brand. The purpose of the study is to form an idea of the eco-tourist potential of the Ak Cholushpa Nature Park of the Altai Republic, in particular, based on the results of a sociological survey. The Nature park acts as a point of growth of sustainable ecotourism of the republic, and the tourist potential as a driving force of the economy. Methods and materials. In the course of the research, a systematic approach, a comprehensive geographical analysis, landscape, geo-ecological, recreational and geographical analysis were used. Field trips and hiking routes were conducted to describe the features of the components of the natural environment, landscape complexes, natural sites-attractions and cultural and historical sites to identify and assess the tourist and recreational potential. Radial field routes were carried out close to the tourist routes that are already functioning and are planned to be implemented in the Ak Cholushpa Nature Park. A sociological survey was conducted, in particular, a questionnaire, to identify the interest of recreants in the valley of the Chulyshman River – one of the main clusters of the natural park and the surrounding area. The target interpretation of the results was performed. The study used and prepared new cartographic materials using geoinformation technologies. Research. An idea of the ecological and tourist potential of the Ak Cholushpa Nature Park has been formed. The main objects of tourist interest of the natural park have been identified both on the basis of recreational-geographical and landscape studies, and according to the results of participants in a sociological survey (questionnaire). The results of the survey of vacationers showed the presence of interest in the natural and historical and cultural objects of the territory. Most of the objects of tourist interest in the region were assessed by respondents at the above-average level. Discussion. The conditions, opportunities and advantages of the development of ecological tourism in the Ak Cholushpa Nature Park are considered. The validity of the tasks of the nature park, consisting in the protection of natural and historical and cultural resources with attention to the ethnic identity of the population, as well as the possibility of generating income from the development of tourism business and providing livelihood for the local ethnic population, is confirmed. The main problems of the natural park – inaccessibility and insufficient transport provision - are identified and analyzed. Conclusion. The possibilities of the tourist space of the Chulyshman Valley of the Chulyshman cluster of the Ak Cholushpa Natural Park are great and diverse: Three clusters with a unique landscape diversity have been formed in the Ak Cholushpa Natural Park. They were created to preserve the authenticity and promote the Altai brand, as well as to develop the potential of international tourist cooperation, primarily in the border areas. The development of the republic's tourist space will continue and attract the attention of the public and scientists. The mechanism of development of this process, first of all, is based on natural and, then, on the historical and ar

Number of views: 72

Analysis of accumulation of volatile organic compounds in plants of Hyssopus officinalis L., introduced in mountain conditions

Gadzhi K. Radzhabov, Abdulahid M. Musaev, Fatima I. Islamova, Aslan M. Aliev

Introduction. Cultivation of medicinal plants in the mountains has its own characteristics due to the high ultraviolet radiation and sharp climatic fluctuations, which is important to consider when farming. In this regard, the issue of studying the accumulation of volatile organic compounds of Hyssopus officinalis L. introduced in these conditions becomes relevant. Aim. Analysis of the dependence of the content of volatile organic compounds in essential oils of 6 cultivars of Hyssopus officinalis L. ("Akkord", "Ametist", "Goluboy", "Dachnyi lekar", "Otradny", "Rozovy") and three forms of the variety "Rozovy": with white, pink and blue flowers introduced at an altitude of 1100 meters above sea level in order to determine the most valuable of them for effective cultivation in mountain areas. Research methods. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The composition of volatile organic compounds was determined by chromatic-mass spectrometry on a Shimadzu GCMS-GP2010 Plus spectrometer with a mass spectrometric quadruple detector with an SLB-5 ms non polar capillary column, 30 meters long. Results. The content of essential oil in varieties ranges from 0.37 to 0.75%. Variety "Ametist" is characterized by a relatively high content of essential oil. Plants with pink flowers contain more essential oil than plants with blue and white flowers. The essential oil of the varieties contains from 31 to 37 components, while the number of major components varies between 13 and 17 compounds. A comparative study of plants of different colors according to the nature of biosynthesis in the essential oil of Pinocamphone and trans-Pinocamphone shows the following: in the essential oil of plants with white flowers, the content of Pinocamphone is observed up to 44.99%, in the blue-flowered form up to 20.85%, and in plants with pink flowers up to 45.23%. A somewhat different picture is observed in the biosynthesis of trans-Pinocamphone: the maximum proportion of this component falls on the sample with blue flowers (34.61%), significantly less in the sample with pink flowers (up to 4.43%), while white-flowered plants have none. The article presents a cluster analysis of 6 cultivars and 3 forms of the "Rozovy" variety (with white, blue and pink flowers) of Hyssopus officinalis L. according to the accumulation of volatile organic compounds. Varieties differ in the content of individual components, while β-Pinene, Pinocamphone and trans-Pinocamphone are the main plant compounds. Conclusions. As a result of the introduction of 6 cultivars of Hyssopus officinalis L. ("Akkord", "Ametist", "Goluboy", "Dachnyi lekar", "Otradny", "Rozovy") and 3 forms of the variety "Rozovy": with white, with pink and with blue flowers at an altitude of 1100 meters above sea level in identical soil-climatic mountain conditions, differences were revealed both in the accumulation of essential oils and in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The data obtained can be used in laying out areas for the cultivation of Hyssopus officinalis L. for pharmaceutical and food use, which can give an additional impetus to the development of mountainous areas.

Number of views: 47

Low-mountain territories of Bolshaya Belokurikha: tourism design based on the recreation opportunity spectrum

Evgeniya M. Tabakaeva, Alexander N. Dunets, Oleg S. Akimov

Introduction. Bolshaya Belokurikha is a dynamically developing tourist destination in the low mountains of the Altai Territory with a sufficient number of underdeveloped territories near the resort town of Belokurikha. The article shows the application of a territory management system based on the recreation opportunity spectrum for the design of the developing territories of Bolshaya Belokurikha. The purpose of the study is to classify the tourist areas of Bolshaya Belokurikha in accordance with the recreation opportunity spectrum and develop recommendations for their design. Materials and methods. The study included the following stages: 1) analysis of the existing use of territories, 2) defining of opportunity setting factors (controlled factors), 3) description of the potential recreation opportunity spectrum with specific values of factors for each class of territory, 4) typification of the territories of Bolshaya Belokurikha in accordance with the characterized spectrum classes, 5) comparison of the planned classes with the current state of the territories and the formulation of design recommendations. The following methods were used to collect data: observation, analysis of secondary data, non-standardized survey of experts from the scientific and business communities in the field of tourism in the form of interviews with open-end questions. At the data processing stage, general scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, and classification were used. As opportunity setting factors (controlled factors), we chose the frequency of encounters with other visitors, the density of buildings and infrastructure, the type of accommodation facilities, the number of service facilities, the type of access to the territory (development of the transport and route network and its quality). Results. The potential recreation opportunity spectrum of Bolshaya Belokurikha includes 8 classes of territories that can satisfy the different needs of visitors: urban territory (obtaining the widest possible range of services in the most comfortable conditions), rural areas (rest from the bustle of the city in comfortable conditions, eco-food, immersion in rural life), motorized sightseeing (quick access to nature in relatively comfortable conditions), a pedestrian zone (short walks along specially equipped health trails near the urban area), semi-primitive motorized territory (active secluded outdoor recreation in comfortable conditions with the possibility of moving on ATVs, bicycles, etc.), hiking zone (solitary short-term (1-3 days) recreation in comfortable conditions, light hiking with overnight stays at camp sites, in glampings, etc.), backcountry (trekking) zone (solitary recreation in training conditions, long hiking with overnight stays in tents in designated places), primitive territory (full immersion in nature with a high level of risk and difficulty). Discussion. Taking into account current trends in demand, the most attention in terms of design in Bolshaya Belokurikha is currently required by the semi-primitive motorized zone and the hiking zone: it is necessary to create accommodation facilities, equip existing routes and design new ones in accordance with the standards defined for each class of territory. Conclusion. The analysis of the existing use of tourist areas within Bolshaya Belokurikha showed that over time, the structure of the tourist space becomes more complex and the transition from point development to area development takes place. The conditions for the development of the tourist territories of Bolshaya Belokurikha as a whole tourist complex and its competitiveness on the basis of the implementation of recreation opportunity spectrum are determined. Resume. 1. The potential recreation opportunity spectrum in the tourist areas of Bolshaya Belokurikha is described in the form of standards for 8 classes of territories. 2. Types of recreational opportunities that r

Number of views: 42

Mathematical model for ore particles movement along the vibrating table of a separator

Vladimir L. Lapshin, Nina V. Nemchinova, Vladimir P. Myazin

Introduction. One of the vibration methods for processing loose finely dispersed mineral raw materials is the separation method on a vibrating surface. Separation occurs according to size, shape of particles, coefficient of friction, elasticity and other mechanical parameters of particles. The efficiency of the separation process depends on the correct choice of technological characteristics of the working equipment. To solve such problems, mechano-rheological models are widely used. The issues of rational construction of research models, based on the specific conditions of the considered dynamic processes, are important and relevant. Materials and methods of research. Identification of rational parameters and modes of operation of vibration equipment is carried out experimentally or by mathematical modeling of the vibration process of the interaction of particles of mineral raw materials with the vibrating body of the separator. Mathematical models are developed for the separated components of the original ore material, which allow studying the dynamics of the movement of particles of the material along the vibrating body of the separator, and as a result of the research, the most rational operating modes of the equipment are determined. Research results and discussion. The presented mechano-rheological system as a model of a material particle is designed to study the processes of interaction with the working body of the separator, a mathematical description of the model is given. The model makes it possible to study the influence of the mechanical properties of the material (elastic, dissipative, plastic) on the dynamics of the process of movement of a material particle along the working body of the separator. For different stages of particle motion, models of different levels of complexity are recommended, which greatly facilitates the solution of problems for the development of algorithms and software for the vibration process under study. This increases the efficiency of the practical application of mathematical models in determining the rational operating modes of the equipment and evaluating the effectiveness of the vibration separation process. Conclusion. To study the process of vibrational separation at various stages of the movement of particles of ore material, it is recommended to use mathematical models of different levels of complexity. A mathematical description of research models for various stages of the vibrational process is presented, the conditions for the transition between the stages of particle motion are given. Resume. Thus, the presented mathematical model makes it possible to study the dynamics of the movement of ore material along the working body of the separator, taking into account the main mechanical properties of the material. The use of the developed recommendations increases the efficiency of the practical application of mechanorheological models for research purposes.

Number of views: 40

Calculation method for twisted heat exchangers used for heat treatment of mining equipment tools

Alexey A. Korobkov, Maxim V. Kulik, Maxim P. Maslakov

Introduction. In modern conditions (depletion of deposits, complication of development conditions, the application of sanctions on the import of equipment, etc.), a special role is played by increasing the resource of equipment used in the mining industry, including processing drilling impact-rotary tools. One of these methods is cryogenic processing of machining tools, as a result of which the hardness and wear resistance of the cutting tool increase several times. For the production of cryogenic substances such as nitrogen, oxygen, methane, etc. in the liquid state, a method is proposed based on the use of adsorption-cryogenic technology implemented through the use of heat exchangers, the development of calculation methods of which is the subject of this article. The purpose of the research is to develop a methodology for calculating heat exchangers used as cold sources for cryogenic surface treatment of mining equipment tools in order to harden it. Research methods. The analysis of the current state of development of technical and technological solutions in the field of development and construction of heat exchangers was carried out through the use of such informal methods as: expert, morphological and factographic. To optimize the modeling calculations of the a priori selected configuration of the heat exchange surface, the method of uniform (blind) search was used. Research results and discussion: 1. In the course of the conducted research, the results of the analysis of the current state of development of technical and technological solutions in the field of development and construction of heat exchangers were obtained. 2. A method for calculating twisted heat exchangers has been developed. 3. It is determined that the presented method of calculating heat exchangers used as cold sources for cryogenic surface treatment of mining equipment tools in order to harden them allows optimization of modeling calculations a priori of the selected configuration of the heat exchange surface. 4. It is established that: heat exchangers with finned pipes should be used when the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient of the flow inside the pipes to the corresponding coefficient in the inter–tube space is 3 ...5 times greater. 5. The use of finned pipes in heat exchangers makes it possible to increase the area of the outer surface of the pipes due to finning, thereby improving the thermal characteristics of heat exchangers, while reducing its weight and size characteristics. 6. It has been revealed that heat exchangers with dense winding are less efficient compared to devices with sparse winding, and heat exchangers with smooth pipes should be used in cases of proximity of the values of the heat transfer coefficient of flows in the tube and inter-tube space. Resume: 1. The analysis of the current state of development of technical and technological solutions in the field of development and construction of heat exchangers was carried out. 2. A method has been developed for calculating heat exchangers used as cold sources for cryogenic surface treatment of mining equipment tools in order to harden them. 3. The developed method of calculating heat exchangers can be used to design heat exchangers consisting of pipes with different surface geometries that are wound onto the core in a spiral, used both in the extractive industries and in the engineering, chemical, oil and gas, rocket and space industries. The further development of the research topic is the optimization of the operating parameters of the heat exchanger according to the criterion of energy efficiency.

Number of views: 48

Prospects of ecological tourism development in Northern Asia protected natural areas. The case of Dzherginsky Reserve (Republic of Buryatia)

Erdeni D. Sanzheev, Nima D. Radnaev, Tatyana B. Tsyrendorzhieva, Sendema D. Shirapova

The purpose of the study is to explore the current state of tourism development in natural protected areas Republic of Buryatia using the case of Dzherginsky Reserve and to identify favorable and negative factors influencing the development of tourism, to determine the main directions for the development of ecological tourism on its territory. Research methods. The main research method was the comparative geographical method. This method helped reveal the features of the development of tourism in Dzherginsky Reserve in comparison with Baikalsky and Barguzinsky Reserves. The statistical method using the dynamics of visitors in the reserves the Republic of Buryatia was determined. In article shown the number of visitors in Dzherginsky reserve is less than in other reserves. The main prerequisites analyzed for the development of tourism in the reserve and factors identified hindering its development. The cartographic method applied in the analysis of the economic-geographical and transport-geographical position of the reserve. On the method of analogies based, identified and substantiated promising directions for the development of ecological tourism in Dzherginsky Reserve. Research results. In the course of the work carried out, that the main factors revealed hindering the development of tourism in Dzherginsky Reserve are the transport inaccessibility of the territory, the lack of access roads with a hard surface, and the environmental and educational nature of the activity. The analysis showed that since 2008 observed the positive dynamics of the number of reserve visitors. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, there has been a decrease in the number of tourists, which is a temporary phenomenon. The reserve has developed five ecological tours designed for tourists with physical training. The reserve has an ethnotourist complex to accommodate tourists. Conclusions. The development of ecological tourism is a promising area of activity for Dzherginsky reserve, for which there are all prerequisites. However, in order for ecological tourism to be profitable, cooperation with government agencies, representatives of the tourist industry and the local population is necessary. In this regard, it is important to use the existing experience of Baikalsky reserve in training the local population and attracting tourists to serve. At the present stage, it is necessary to develop program documents in which it is necessary to provide for measures to mitigate adverse factors.

Number of views: 194
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ISSN 1998-4502 (Print)                                                            ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)