Introduction. The solution of the level maintaining problem of blasting negative impact on the environment and protected objects within acceptable values while simultaneously increasing the volume and intensity of preparation of overburden by drilling and blasting lies in the field of improving methods and means, as well as optimizing the parameters of blasting, including by determining the optimal values of deceleration intervals during short-delayed blasting of overburden. Research methods and materials. To solve this problem, an algorithm was developed implemented in a software package that allows calculating the number of wells being blown up simultaneously; modeling and visually demonstrating the development of an explosion; calculating combinations of values of deceleration values of short-delayed blasting between rows of wells and between wells in a row; quantifying the quality of the found combination of values of deceleration values of short-delayed blasting and visually displaying how much the mass explosion proceeds uniformly in time, as well as the total duration of the explosion. Research results. The calculation of deceleration values combinations of short-delayed blasting between rows of wells and between wells in a row is performed depending on the number of rows of wells and the number of wells in a row for the selected number of wells exploding simultaneously. It is established that with an increase in the number of rows of wells, the number of points corresponding to a particular number of wells being blown up simultaneously (in the interval of 20 ms) decreases. At the same time, the sets of points corresponding to each next step of increasing the number of rows partially belong to the set of points corresponding to the previous step, and solutions for different values of the number of wells in a series with a constant number of rows are mutually exclusive. It is shown that with an increase in the values of the deceleration intervals, the quality of the solution increases in the case of a constant number of wells exploding simultaneously. Conclusion. The choice of optimal deceleration intervals during drilling and blasting operations is an effective way to control the seismic impact on protected objects. Increasing the deceleration to a value that ensures the formation of additional exposed surfaces is effective from the point of view of providing a complex effect as a result of an explosion, as a combination of the possibility of obtaining the required quality of rock crushing and reducing the seismic impact on protected objects. Resume. The developed algorithm, implemented in the software package, makes it possible to efficiently calculate the number of wells exploding simultaneously, find the optimal combination of values of deceleration values, quantify the quality of the found combination. For a more adequate assessment of the expected seismic impact, it is necessary to calculate the ratio of the duration of the period of non-maximum intensity of explosions to the total duration of explosions, expressed as a percentage. The larger the calculated value, the less seismic impact the explosion will have when comparing explosions with an equal number of wells exploding simultaneously.
Introduction. The heterogeneity of soil cover of mountainous areas carries in itself the specific formation of technogeochemical anomalies in the areas of metallurgical combines, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of these areas requires detailed studies of the processes of pollutants in the soil and mechanisms of their behavior. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of aero-industrial emissions from the copper smelter on the formation of techno-geochemical anomalies of arsenic in soils and its spatial distribution. Methods and materials of the research. Studies were conducted in the area of the Karabash copper smelter (KMC), located in the southern Urals (Russia), Chelyabinsk region, one of the main pollutants of soils is arsenic, which is formed in the Soymanovskaya Valley and adjacent landscapes techno-geochemical soil anomalies. In the course of works 25 soil sections were laid at different distances and directions from KMC, taking into account the specific geo-morphological features of the territory. In the selected soil samples we determined the acidity of the salt extract, the content of organic matter, granulometric composition, gross content of arsenic and its exchangeable form. Determination of arsenic was carried out by atomic adsorption spectrometry (AA-6800 Shimadzu). To identify the dependence of arsenic concentration in the upper 0-15 cm of the soil thickness with the distance from the CMC was carried out to calculate the Pearson coefficient and the concentration coefficient (Kc). Research results and discussion. The study area was divided into 5 zones depending on the distance from CMC. Excess concentrations of gross arsenic relative to the background content varies from 64 times in the 2 km zone to 3 times at a distance of more than 10 km. Maximum concentrations were recorded in the upper 0-15 cm of the soil thickness in the 2 km zone. The exchangeable form of arsenic has a specific accumulation near the combine, with a distance of more than 10 km from the combine, there is a tendency to reduce the content of this form, to a complete absence. In the intraprofile distribution there is a pattern of accumulation in the upper 0-15 cm of the soil layer, with depth significantly decreasing. Conclusions. Patterns in the spatial distribution of arsenic in soils based on the distance from the emission of aeroindustrial emissions were revealed. Maps of the spatial distribution of gross arsenic and exchange forms in the soils of the study area. It was determined that an important role in the formation of techno-geochemical anomalies plays pH of the environment. During the calculation of Ks revealed local areas that form anomalous halos dispersion, which are confined mainly to places near the CMC and the direction of the prevailing winds. Two local areas were identified for which the Kc values are more than 50. Pearson criterion calculations confirm the dependence of the spatial distribution of arsenic in soils on the wind rose. The results may be useful in the preparation of geochemical maps of arsenic distribution. In the prediction of local and radial differentiation of arsenic in other regions with similar activity of the combine, as well as in the correction of the regional geochemical background of arsenic in soils.
Introduction. Modern agricultural land use should be resistant to external and internal factors, organized on the principles of resource optimization and digitalization of processes, using biologization tools to achieve the goal related to the quality of agricultural products. Achieving this goal is possible by regulating the production process in the agrolandscape, namely, by analyzing the leading agroecological factors (erosion and deflation processes, moisture and heat supply, salinization, flooding, etc.) and conditions. An innovative approach related to the analysis of the existing potential of the territory of agricultural land, factors limiting agricultural production, will determine the direction of land use, predict the potential and reduce the land intensity of agricultural production and raw materials at the level of the municipal district, where a set of measures for land management is being designed, thereby increasing their resilience. The purpose of the study. To assess the qualitative state of agricultural land in an agrarian territory (by municipal districts) in the arid steppe of the Altai Krai to increase its sustainability. Research methods. System analysis was the main scientific method used in the work. It made it possible to compare the interrelationships and mutual influences in the analysis of the structure of lands. Comparative geographic and ecological landscape methods were also used in the study and analysis of the characteristics of the territory using the cartographic method and GIS technologies. Methods of mathematical statistics were used to determine the stability of agricultural land. Research results. The modern assessment of the agrarian territory of the arid steppe (nine municipal districts) carried out in the work showed that erosion processes were not widespread on the agricultural lands of the territory. Judging by the data obtained, large areas of the arid steppe are subject to destruction by wind. More than 80 % of the area of agricultural land is deflationary areas. The area of deflationary and deflated land is 200 thousand hectares with a minimum value in the Suetsky district and a maximum in Rodinsky. The main area of deflationary soils is observed in arable land (76-96 %), followed by pastures and hayfields. Based on the assessment of the qualitative state of agricultural land in the arid steppe in terms of the ratio of the areas of eroded and deflated lands with various degrees of degradation (weak, medium, strong), as well as non-eroded
and non-deflated areas, we made an integral assessment of the state, which allows us to judge the stability of a large agar area. In total, five classes or groups of lands were identified: very low, low, medium, high and very high, and a score from 1 to 5 was assigned. It follows from the materials that the anti-erosion resistance is much higher than the anti-deflation one. The erosion resistance of the arable land is the same in seven areas of the arid steppe (the sum of points is 3). Judging by the sum of points, the stability of arable land in the Suetsky and Rubtsovsky districts is somewhat less than in other districts. The area under hayfields is less stable than the area occupied by arable land. The territory of pastures is even less stable than the territory of arable land and hayfields, which is confirmed by some increase in the total number of points. A more noticeable decrease in the stability of the pasture area is observed in the Suetsky and Volchikhinsky districts compared to the rest of the districts. A very high and high degree of resistance of agricultural land to the combined effects of erosion and deflation is typical for the Khabarsky and Rubtsovsky districts, (for which the sum of points is 30 and 33, respectively. scores are 50 and 55, respectively). The calculated gradations of the degree of stability of the territory occupied by agricultural land confirm
Introduction. The gradual depletion of hydrocarbon condensate fields is already forcing the industry to pay attention to those sources, which are included to the off-spec and difficult to recover categories. Therefore, the study of reservoir permeability, associated with the pore-fractured structure of coal, is the most important parameter in the unconventional gas resources development, which determines both economic efficiency and approaches to the development of such deposits. In this regard, the investigation on permeability distribution of coal seams over an area is critical to fairway selection and coal bed methane resource assessment. The research objective. The factors analysis that affect the permeability value change of the Tutuyasskaya area, situated in the southern part of the Kuznetsk Basin in Russian Federation. Materials and methods. Within the framework of the research, target coal seams were selected that have sufficient data for the permeability primary assessment. As a result of wells exploration drilling in the productive coal seams intervals, core sampling was carried out by removable core and gas sampler to investigate their methane content, as well as sampling for technological, sorption and petro graphic analysis. Results. The primary visual assessment allows to conclude that a high (for unconventional reservoir) permeability is predicted almost equally in all the investigated coal seams. For a more specific assessment of the predicted endogenous fracturing and permeability of the target coal seams, the results of petro graphic analysis were used. Therefore, high permeability values were almost equally expected in all the investigated coal seams because of the dominated vitrinite group minerals, a medium coal rank and a developed network of endogenous fractures. Dynamic well tests were used to quantify the filtration parameters of coal seams and permeability. The results obtained showed a different amount of coal seams permeability despite the same tendency to high permeability. Moreover, the permeability of coal seams in the southern part of the Tutuyasskaya area of Kuzbass does not depend on the depth of the seam, but on the main stresses acting in the rock mass, the influence of exogenous fracturing and the presence of a faults near the penetrated coal seam. The results of 1D geo-mechanical modeling allowed to conclude that higher permeability values of the investigated coal seams are associated with a minimal difference between geostatic and horizontal stresses with conditions of almost equilateral volumetric compression. Furthermore, lower permeability values can be explained by the influence of exogenous fracturing, which reduces filtration characteristics. Conclusions. The analysis of cores from investigated wells in the southern part of the Tutuyasskaya area of Kuzbass showed the tendency to high permeability of the coal seams as for unconventional reservoirs. Dynamic well tests of coal seams have shown that the primary assessment of permeability does not agree with its quantitative determination and depends not on the depth of the coal seams, but on the main stresses acting in the rock mass, the influence of exogenous fracturing and the presence of a faults near the penetrated coal seam. Moreover, the one-dimensional geo-mechanical modeling allowed to conclude that high permeability values of the investigated coal seams are associated with a minimal difference between geostatic and horizontal stresses. Suggestions for the future research. The results of this research can be used in the design of coal seam degassing works for productive coal mines in order to extract coal bed methane in advance and also can be used in the future methodological frameworks development for choosing locations of wells extracting coal bed methane. Furthermore, the advanced further research direction is the evaluation of the efficiency of the coal bed methane u
Introduction. The dynamics of the vital movement of the population of the North Caucasus for 2005-2020 is investigated. Research methods and materials. Both traditional and the latest geographic research methods are used - comparative geographical, spatial analysis, statistical, GIS technologies, population surveys, etc. Research results. The conducted studies have shown that despite the apparent well-being, a tense demographic situation is developing in the North Caucasus. Favorable demographic results are obtained only at the expense of three subjects - Dagestan, Ingushetia and Chechnya. In other regions, narrowed and negative reproduction is observed. The natural increase is getting lower and lower. The small generation born in the 1990s reached the fertile age. COVID-19 restrictions and a crisis in the economy have led to an even greater decline in the birth rate and an increase in mortality. The conducted geodemographic classification of the regions of the North Caucasus showed that the most favorable situation is observed in Ingushetia, the situation is slightly worse in Chechnya and Dagestan, narrowed reproduction in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia and the most tense situation is in North Ossetia and the Stavropol Territory. Conclusion. To improve the situation, a differentiated approach is needed to different regions in the demographic sphere, the creation of new workplaces. The outflow of the able-bodied population from the regions of the North Caucasus leads to a violation of the population age composition and, thereby, undermines the fertility of the population. This leads to a decrease in the birth rate and, accordingly, natural increase. Resume. The article presents the results of studies of the natural movement of the population of Russia and the North Caucasus Federal District. At the same time, the multi-scale method of research and geodemographic classification was taken as the basis. It has been established that relatively favorable results on the scale of Russia were achieved in the North Caucasus Federal District, and on the scale of the North Caucasian Federal District - in Ingushetia, Chechnya and Dagestan. It was determined that along with the traditional factors of mortality, the factor of infectious morbidity began to play a significant role. It is shown that at the same time, mortality in working age has increased. It was revealed that there is a significant territorial differentiation of the natural movement of the population both in Russia as a whole and in the North Caucasus Federal District. The results of the research can be useful in developing programs for further demographic development of the regions.
Introduction. At present, in the instrumental study of the mineral forms of finding gold in geogenic and technogenic ores, more and more attention has been paid to free gold, with a size of several nanometers. Such gold has been found in almost all types of its geogenic ores: starting with deposits of primary sulfide ores and ending with various gold-bearing placers. A similar situation is observed with technogenic gold-bearing ores accumulated in numerous dumps and tailings. At the same time, with the increase in research on nanogold, not only its fundamental, but also practical importance grows, because. in theoretical and applied research, more and more of its actual physical and chemical properties and previously unknown phenomena and effects accompanying them are discovered and clarified. Research methods and materials. An important aspect is the instrumental study of the geometry of various forms of nanogold occurrence in natural (geogenic) and technogenic ores and minerals. The instrumental and analytical part of our research was based on the visualization of nanoparticles obtained from the Nanjing Research Institute of the Chemical Industry under Sinopec (PRC), carried out on a JEOL 2010F microscope. Research results. The studied gold nanoparticles were presented in the form: • spherical fullerene-like monoparticles; • fullerene-like gold cells, consisting of a different number (from 13 to 20 clusters) of gold nanoparticles; • self-organized «fractal» dendrites; • rather complex composites with the participation of nanogold; • various aggregates of nanoparticles, etc. The concentrations of gold nanoparticles vary significantly from one deposit to another and between individual ore
facies (even within the same deposit). Discussion of the obtained results. It was found that nanogold can be contained in arsenopyrites in 2 main forms: a) as a structurally bound solid solution (Au + 1) located in the lattice of this mineral; b) in separate mineral inclusions of submicron size or nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles (5-10 nm in size) detected in arsenopyrite in concentrations up to 4% mass fraction are sufficiently representative to account for their amount in gold-bearing ores. A gold nanoparticle with a size of 3 nm usually has an average coordination number CN = 9.5, similar nanoparticles with a size of 1 nm have an average CN = 6, and nanoparticles with a size of 0.5–1 nm have an average CN = 3.6. Conclusion. To date, a nanoparticle catalyst has been developed in which gold clusters are attached to metal oxides that are semiconductors. At the same time, their number is very limited and includes only Fe2O3, TiO2, CeO2, and MgO compounds, which can be used not only in the form of nanoparticles, but also nanofilms. Such an innovative nanocatalyst ensures the efficient flow of a number of oxidative and other processes with hydrocarbons at normal temperatures, which is difficult to achieve by other methods. Findings. The article presents the results of studies of the physicochemical properties of gold nanoparticles installed in ores and catalysts. The morphology of gold nanoparticles has been established. The character of gold speciation in various sulfides is determined. The presence of gold nanoparticles in ores and rocks in the state of colloids has been confirmed. The catalytic activity of nanoparticles of various shapes and chemical states was revealed, depending on the values of the ambient temperature. The results of the research can be useful in the enrichment of gold-bearing ores of upland deposits.
This article presents the results of optimizing the reliability and reliability of the time forecast’s development reserves of the coal mine long wall areas and the preparation time of the face longwall line. A scheme of the reproduction the long wall front process in the form of a decision tree model has been developed. The dependences of the optimal probability of the absence of coal mining losses and the optimal dynamic time reserve on the reliability of longwall and preparatory work and on the ratio of damage in case of shortage, as well as the costs of maintaining the cleaning front, are established. It is shown that when forming a mining development plan, the value of the optimal dynamic time reserve should be determined for each treatment face. It is determined that when providing dynamic redundancy of the process of reproduction of the longwall front, the possibilities of performing degassing and drainage of mineral reserves being prepared for extraction are more fully realized which positively affects the level of reliability and safety of longwall operations.
Introduction. Currently, nickel-titanium alloy has a noticeable spread in the mechanical engineering and mining industry. Modification of the properties of this alloy by ion-implantation is also being developed. Methods and materials of research. For research, experimental samples of Ti-Ni alloy in coarse-grained and finegrained structural state were specially manufactured before and after implantation with various ion beams with a dose of D = 2.3 × 1017 ion/cm2 with an energy of 40 keV. All samples were examined using: nanoindentation, microhardness measurements and X-ray diffraction analysis. Research results. The results of nanoindentation showed that the Ti-Ni alloy samples in the coarse-grained and finegrained state after ion-implantation had a higher hardness compared to the initial state. The increase in hardness in all samples is associated with the formation of a large number of radiation effects. The modulus of elasticity for the finegrained state practically does not change after ion bombardment. Discussion of research results. The microhardness study was carried out to determine the depth of the hardened layer after ion-implantation for samples in coarse-grained and fine-grained states. The greatest microhardness was detected at the sample surface in the nanostate (fine-grained) after irradiation with titanium ions. X-ray diffraction analysis of TiNi alloy samples in the nanostructured state before and after implantation with nickel and titanium ions with a dose of D = 2.3 × 1017 ion/cm2 at low-angle intensity peaks was carried out. It showed that ion-implantation leads either to a decrease in the amount of the monoclinic structure of the material, or to a significant decrease in it. Conclusion. Investigation of the process of ion-implantation of titanium-nickel alloy in coarse-grained and fine-grained state by titanium and nickel ions has shown that exposure leads to: - an increase in the hardness of the material by 20% and 6%, respectively; - a decrease and no change in the modulus of elasticity, respectively; - increase of microhardness by 100% and 40%, respectively; - not noticeable and noticeable change in the structure of the surface layer, respectively. Conclusions on the article. The obtained research results show that ion-implantation of titanium-nickel makes it possible to further increase the reliability of loaded mining equipment units, increase its service life and reduce the wear of critical parts. Suggestions for practical application and directions for future research. The results shown allow us to propose a method of ion implantation as a hardening treatment of particularly critical parts used, in particular, in the mining industry. In order to develop ion implantation as one of the strengthening technologies, it would be advisable to continue the study of various physico-chemical properties after exposure to ion implantation.
Introduction. The physical properties of rocks, which determine the choice of the type of mill, as well as its operating parameters, are considered. The importance of studying the damping properties of the crushed material and their influence on the energy intensity of the grinding process is noted. Research methods and materials. The differential equation of motion of the crack wall, previously obtained by the authors of the article, is applied when it is exposed to a shock wave with amplitude σ and duration τ. The classical theory of damped oscillations of the system is used to determine the damping decrement of the shock pulse amplitude. A series of experimental studies was carried out on a laboratory sample of a drum mill to determine the magnitude of the shock pulse damping coefficient. Rocks from various deposits in Russia with strictly defined strength characteristics were used as the crushed material. Research results. Dependences of the amplitude of the shock pulse on time are constructed for the grinding of granite raw materials, carbonate rocks and soft rocks (gypsum) in a drum mill. The following conclusions were drawn: 1. When grinding strong and very hard rocks in a drum mill, a strong impact occurs (with a large amplitude and duration of the shock pulse) and with its weak damping when propagating in the rock. 2. When grinding carbonate rocks, doubling the angular velocity of rotation of the grinding chamber leads to an increase in the amplitude of the shock pulse by about 1.5 times. 3. The duration of shock wave propagation in both cases is approximately equal. 4. The frequency of grinding media collisions increases significantly. This indicates a sharp increase in the energy intensity of the grinding process. 5. When grinding soft rocks in a drum mill, almost half of the input energy is spent on overcoming the damping properties of the material, and small, frequent pulses, which consume half of all energy, are not able to grind the material to the desired size. Discussion. Based on the conducted studies, graphs of dependencies between the main parameters of the drum mill were constructed. The dependences of the duration of the shock pulse on the average diameter of the particles of the crushed material are constructed. The analysis of these dependences made it possible to conclude that the duration of the shock pulse is in a parabolic dependence on the value of the average particle diameter of the crushed material. The dependences of the damping coefficient on the damping decrement of the shock pulse amplitude are constructed. The analysis of these dependences allowed us to conclude that the shock pulse damping coefficient increases almost linearly with an increase in the damping decrement of the shock pulse amplitude. The dependences of the damping coefficient of the shock pulse on the average diameter of the particles of the
crushed material are constructed. The analysis of these dependences allowed us to conclude that the shock pulse damping coefficient is in a quadratic dependence on the value of the average particle diameter of the crushed material. Conclusion. In this article, based on the classical theory of damped oscillations of such system, the principle of determining the damping coefficient of the shock pulse propagating from the grinding body deep into the grinding load of the drum mill is scientifically substantiated. Resume. Experimental determination of the value of the damping factor of the shock pulse, along with the use of the energy criterion for the destruction of the rock, makes it possible to calculate the amount of energy required to destroy the rock particles to a given size. Suggestions for practical application and direction for future research: The results of the research can be used at the enterprises of the mining sector of the industry to improve the efficiency of processing mineral resources
Introduction. Tailings are a source of chemicals and finely dispersed solid tailings carried by air currents over considerable distances. Purpose of research. Creation of a predictive map of the concentration of chemicals and the solid phase of tailings carried by air currents in mountain landscapes, and a description of the pattern of their distribution along the slopes of mountain gorges near the Fiagdon tailing dump. With the help of a simplified aerodynamic model, the processes of aerosol dispersion of the solid phase of tailings and chemical elements in mountain landscapes from the Fiagdon tailing dump, located in the Kurtat gorge, North OssetiaAlania, Russia, are considered. These tailings contain lead, zinc, arsenic and other chemical elements. The mathematical model takes into account the complex mountainous landscape of the area, the characteristic wind roses, as well as the transport and sedimentation of the solid phase of the tailings. A forecast of the distribution of chemicals along the slopes of the Kurtat gorge, adjacent gorges and in the floodplain of the Khanikom-Don River (the right side tributary of the Fiagdon River) is presented, local wind roses are calculated, which are compared with field measurements and with measurements taken by meteorological satellites. The data of meteorological satellites of the American aerospace agency NASA are used: satellites Terra, Aqua, Geos, as well as the Copernicus global monitoring system for the environment and security of the European Space Agency. These data are averaged over an area of the order of 10 × 10 km or more, and the wind roses obtained on their basis characterize the study area on an average. The comparison of the simulations and these wind roses shows a qualitative agreement. Comparison of the wind rose measured by the weather station and the wind rose obtained from the computational model for this area shows good agreement. The results of the simulations show that the important factors determining the spatial distribution of the tailings and chemical elements deposited on the slopes of the solid phase in mountain landscapes are the features of the terrain, the characteristic direction of the wind speed and the atmospheric turbulence. The forecast of concentrations of the solid phase of tailings and chemical elements from the Fiagdon tailing dump in the mountain villages of Kakadur, Fazikau, Lamardon, Dargavs, Staraya Saniba, Karmadon, Verkhny Fiagdon is presented. Based on the results of simulations of aerodynamic processes in the atmosphere of the Kurtat Gorge, North OssetiaAlania, predictive map of the distribution of chemicals and the solid phase of tailings from source in the area of the Fiagdon is built. Chemicals and the solid phase of tailings are carried out in the Kurtat Gorge mainly in the eastern and northern directions, while in the settlement of Verkhny Fiagdon, the concentrations remain insignificant and lower than the MPC. The model can be used to estimate the concentration of chemicals and the solid phase of tailings carried by air currents in mountain landscapes and to describe their distribution patterns along the slopes of mountain gorges.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)