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Prognostical assessment of technological indicators of ferruginous quartzites enrichment

Rinat I. Ismagilov, Elena L. Chanturiya, Dmitriy V. Shekhirev

Introduction. When developing a technology for the enrichment of mineral raw materials, reliable information about its material composition and a qualified technological interpretation of the data obtained is important which allows us to pre-evaluate the possibility of obtaining enrichment products of the required quality. The quality of raw materials to produce metallized pellets (DRI) and hot-briquetted iron (HBI) has high requirements for the content of iron, silica, and other impurities. For Mikhailovsky GOK named after A.V. Varicheva (MGOKa) the priority task is to develop a technology for the isolation of high-quality magnetite concentrates with a reduced content of impurities to produce DRI pellets. The purpose of the work. Using the example of the material of the over-latticed product of wet thin screening, we propose a methodological approach and develop an algorithm for preliminary evaluation of the possibility of obtaining magnetite concentrates of improved quality from iron ore concentrates of the MGOC and substantiate the maximum possible technological indicators of the process of enrichment. Research methodology. Fritch’s Analizette 22 laser analyzer, ECLIPSE LV100-POL polarizing microscope, SMZ-1500 optical stereomicroscope equipped with DS-5M-L1 digital micro-photographic system and MLA 650 (FEI Company) automated mineralogical analysis tool complex was used to study. The data array was processed using standard MLA software, as well as personal algorithms, in an Excel environment, taking into account expert knowledge on enrichment technology. Amines were used for the reverse flotation of the crushed super lattice product. The content of elements in the samples was determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Research results. A methodological approach to the predictive assessment of technological indicators of ore enrichment is proposed, which allows, based on the study of a statistically representative number of particles of the source material and expert technological knowledge, to calculate the mineral, elemental composition, the maximum possible quality and extraction of valuable components and impurities into the concentrate. On the example of the over-lattice product of fine screening of an ordinary concentrate of magnetic separation of nonoxidized ferruginous quartzites of the Mikhailovsky GOK named after A.V. Varichev developed an algorithm for predictive evaluation of technological indicators enrichment, which consists in processing information about the mass fraction of each particle among the statistically reliable number of counted particles, its equivalent diameter, the mass fraction of all minerals and elements included in the particle, as well as the fraction of the particle surface represented by each of the minerals and a number of other parameters using standard MLA software, as well as its own algorithms, in the Excel environment, taking into account expert knowledge on enrichment technology. Additional processing of information in the Excel environment involves ranking and sampling of particles by quality, as well as sampling by size, mineral and elemental composition. The ranking is carried out according to three options: in descending order of the content of magnetite, the total content of magnetite, hematite, and carbonates, as well as the total content of magnetite, hematite, carbonates and aegirine. The ordered database obtained as a result of particle ranking is used for virtual accumulation of the calculated concentrate. Virtual accumulation was carried out by attaching to the calculated concentrate of all particles sequentially, one by one, from an ordered database: from the first with the maximum quality to the last with the minimum. Since for each particle its yield (mass fraction) of all the particles in the database is known, as well as the mass fractions of elements and minerals, the yield, content and extraction

Number of views: 165

Geographic identity of the concept of «Greater Altai» and promising areas of cross-border cooperation in the region

Alexander N. Dunets, Sergey D. Mamenov

Introduction. The Altai Mountains are a mountain system that is part of the sub latitudinal Altai-Sayan mountainous country. The mountains are the watershed between the basins of the Arctic Ocean and the drainleess region of Central Asia. This is the territory where the sources of the Irtysh and the Ob are located. Materials and research мethods. The article uses a regional approach to the study of a mountainous region. From the standpoint of the historical-geographical approach, the historical aspects of the formation of the transboundary essence of the Great Altai concept are revealed. Research results. The analysis of the origin of the understanding of the transboundary essence of Altai as a territory of cooperation is carried out. Expeditionary groups have been identified that have made a significant contribution to the understanding of the Great Altai. This made it possible to present the modern features of the economic, geographical and geopolitical position of the region. Discussion. A concept for the development of the region within the framework of the main areas of cooperation is proposed. The interests of Russia are indicated to promote the uniqueness of the territory and use its opportunities for tourism. Conclusion. The geographical position and natural resources make the Altai Mountains an important object in the development of cross-border cooperation. Since the 18th century scientists are actively exploring the territory for its effective use. The Great Altai has the prospect of becoming a trade and economic corridor between Russia, Mongolia and China. Resume. Since the beginning of the 2000s, forms of cross-border cooperation between the countries of the Greater Altai have appeared. The developed concept of the economic council within the framework of the ISS «Altai» will help to implement cooperation in various areas.

Number of views: 165

Modern agro-climatic conditions of mountain landscapes in the North Caucasus

Ibragim A. Kerimov, Luiza R. Bekmurzaeva

Introduction. For the first time, the problem of global warming was officially announced in 1976 by the World Meteorological Organization. The most complete picture of ongoing climate change, causes, consequences and response strategies can be obtained from the reports of the IPCC (intergovernmental group of experts). There are many works devoted to regional climate changes, including those in the North Caucasus. However, these works do not reflect the modern agro-climatic conditions of the mountainous landscapes of the North Caucasus which occupy 27% of the territory and are actively involved in agriculture. Aim - analysis of modern agro-climatic conditions of the mountain landscapes of the North Caucasus in a changing climate. Materials and research methods. To assess agro-climatic conditions, traditional agro-climatic indicators were used, such as annual and average monthly air temperatures; sums of active temperatures exceeding 5 and 10°С; dates of stable transition of the average daily air temperature through 0, 5 and 10°C in spring and autumn; the duration of the period with an average daily temperature of 0, 5, 10 ° C, the average temperature of the coldest and warmest months of the calendar year, annual precipitation, hydrothermal coefficient. The processing of the material was carried out by methods of mathematical statistics using Excel spreadsheets. Processed data on temperature and precipitation in the period from 1961 to 2020 for six meteorological stations. Research results. For the period from 1961 to 2020, within the mountain landscapes of the North Caucasus, there is an increase in annual air temperature compared to the previous period by an average of 0,5 °C. Against the background of an increase in annual temperature, such agro climatic indicators as the sum of active temperatures increased, exceeding 5o and 10oC by 6 and 13%, respectively. The stable transition of the average daily air temperature through 0, 5, 10°C has also undergone changes. In spring, on average, this happens 5, 1, 6 days earlier. Whereas in autumn, on the contrary, 3, 1, 5 days later. The duration of the period with an average daily temperature of 0, 5, 10 °C increased by an average of 10, 3, 13 days, respectively. Precipitation increased at all meteorological stations, with the exception of the Klukhorsky cross, by an average of 45 mm. The hydrothermal coefficient, which characterizes precipitation during the growing season,
remained within the limits of natural fluctuation, except for the Klukhorsky cross, where it decreased due to a decrease in precipitation during the warm period. Discussion. The analysis of the agro-climatic conditions of the mountain landscapes of the North Caucasus for 1961-2020. revealed trends in the growth of annual temperature and precipitation, however, the moisture supply of the active vegetation period, estimated using the HTC, remained unchanged. Our results correlate with the official data of Rosgydromet, published in the Report on the peculiarities of the climate of the Russian Federation for 2021. Conclusion. The study allows us to state that in the mountainous landscapes of the North Caucasus, climatic changes proceed according to the scenario of an increase in air temperature and precipitation. As a result, agro-climatic indicators have changed: the sum of active temperatures has increased, exceeding 5o and 10oC and the duration of the period with an average daily temperature of 0, 5, 10oC, the dates of a stable transition through 0, 5, 10oC have changed, precipitation has increased, but the HTC has remained within the natural fluctuation . The stability of the HTC indicator indicates the stability of landscape boundaries, despite the observed changes in agro-climatic indicators. Resume. The observed climatic changes within the mountain landscapes of the North Caucasus contribute to

Number of views: 168

Impact of mobile and stationary pollution sources on the geoecological state of urbanized territories in the mountain region

Vladislav B. Zaalishvili, Ketevan V. Korbesova, Inga G. Arkhireeva, Ganapathy P. Ganapathy

Introduction. The air quality problems facing the world today become aggravated by rapid urban population growth, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion and a phenomenal growth in the number and time of car use. In general, geoecological pollution of the territory is caused by stationary and mobile sources. The industry in the most of the regions today is experiencing degradation to one degree or another. At the same time, operating plants and factories, especially those associated with the processing of toxic heavy metals, are mostly equipped with filter systems that significantly reduce the territory pollution. On the other hand, in recent years, road transport has taken the first place in terms of urban areas pollution. Road traffic is the largest source of many air pollutants that are harmful to health, but emissions from internal combustion engines are not the only source of pollution. Car tyres and parts of brake systems are also a significant source of environmental pollution. Thus, the assessment of the level of environmental pollution by road transport seems to be a very urgent task. Research methods. Experimental research methods were used in the work. The authors introduced a new integral index of atmospheric air pollution Zatm. The assessment of the level of atmospheric air pollution was carried out using the Ecolab gas analyzer based on a specially developed measurement technique. The data of the existing foreign works on the assessment of environmental pollution by tyre wear products were also considered as the source material. The obtained data were extrapolated to the territory of Vladikavkaz city. Map compilation was carried out using geoinformation modeling methods. Research results. As part of the study of tyre wear for the territory of Vladikavkaz city, it was found that about 258 tons of tyre wear products are emitted into the city’s environment per year, which is 860 grams per head of population. On the basis of the obtained data on the actual content of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons С1-С10 and nitrogen and sulfur dioxides in the atmospheric air, a distribution map of the integral index of atmospheric air pollution Zatm in Vladikavkaz city was constructed. The map identified the sections of roads that are subjected to the greatest pollution Discussion. Traffic optimization models, in particular, “green corridors”, are currently being proposed as mitigation measures for pollutant emissions from road transport. Based on the analysis of the obtained data, which form the basis of the constructed maps of atmospheric air pollution in Vladikavkaz city, Recommendations for reducing the ecological load of road transport on the environment have been developed. Conclusion. Today, when most stationary sources (plants, factories, mining and processing centers, etc.) have practically stopped their activity or equipped with special treatment systems (filters, modern technologies), it is mobile pollution sources that emit the largest amount of pollutants. Road transport forms a high level of load on the geo-ecological state of the territory environment. The analysis of the obtained results made it possible to develop Recommendations for reducing pollutant emissions from road transport, which, due to the evergrowing number of vehicles and, as a result, increasing environmental pollution, is an actual result of the work. Resume. On the basis of the obtained data on the actual content of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen and sulfur dioxides in the atmospheric air, a distribution map of the introduced integral index of atmospheric air pollution Zatm in Vladikavkaz city was constructed. The map identifies the sections of roads that are subjected to the greatest pollution. In addition to the exhausts of internal combustion engines, car tyres are also considered as a pollution source and the assessment is given according to the

Number of views: 155

Some results of the work on the evaluation of radon emanations at Unal tailings

Vladimir A. Fomenko, Andrey A. Sokolov, Alan B. Lolaev, Indira O. Aimbetova

Introduction. Despite the significant contribution of scientists to the study of the existing technogenic impact of the Unal tailing dump on the environment, studies on it of such parameters as the stress-strain state of the tailing dump body, radon emanation have not been previously studied. Materials and research methods. The purpose of the studies described in the work was to study the presence and magnitude of radon emanations in the subsoil air of the surface of the Unal tailing dump for further assessment of the applicability of the method to take into account the stress-strain state of the body. As a result of field studies, the authors measured the equivalent equilibrium volumetric activity of radon-222 (hereinafter EEVA) in the reference points selected according to the previously proposed algorithm for selecting reference points, which is based on the methodology for determining the stress-strain state of a body undergoing change. As a result of the studies, the values of radon emanation data were determined, the data obtained on EEDA were processed and systematized for subsequent analysis and evaluation using specialized software and algorithmic software.
Research results. As a result of the analysis and evaluation of the obtained data on EEDA, after establishing the fact of the presence of radon emanations from the area, it can be concluded that it is necessary to conduct a second expedition in order to prove the hypothesis of the possible use of EEDA to assess and characterize the stress-strain state of the tailings body (in relation to the Unal tailings) and substantiate occurrence of serious consequences in case of a potential change in the state of the body of the tailing dump during seasonal flooding, seismic and technogenic impacts. In the course of this work on the analysis of the results of experimental studies in the scientific and educational center of the SFU branch in Gelendzhik and field studies, the following conclusions can be formulated. As a result of a number of research activities to assess the geo-ecological sustainability of tailings using seismic and satellite GPS equipment (including the justification of control well locations for monitoring radon emanations), the hypothesis was confirmed that the current values can be estimated from variations in changes in radon 222 emanations stress-strain state of the body of the tailing dump, which makes a significant contribution to the development of express methods for diagnosing the level of pollution of anomalous zones and assessing the risk for adjacent media using the latest geophysical, geochemical and geostatic methods. The proposed method for analyzing the stress-strain state of the tailing dump body and other parameters of its internal structure can also be used to monitor other alluvial and bulk man-made massifs formed as a result of the activities of mining and processing plants located in various regions of the Russian Federation.

Number of views: 173

Dynamic model construction method for coal quality control in complex-structural deposits

Irina A. Osipova

Introduction. Sustainable development of the coal mine is inextricably linked to quality control of the coal produced. Three main factors influence coal quality: geological, technological and industrial. The process of these factors influencing is varied: mean values of field quality indicators are generally known from exploration data, and during coal mining quality values may change. Keeping the required production balance in terms of the quality of coal produced is an immediate task of the coal-mining enterprise in terms of the strategy of complex development of solid mineral deposits. It should be noted that in scientific works concerning the quality of mined mineral, the question of the reliability and consistency of incoming geological exploration and mining-technological information and its interpretation was not considered sufficiently thoroughly. Materials and methods of research. In order to solve the existing problem of changing the quality of coal extracted, a multi-level model structure is being created, including coal quality map models, models for presenting knowledge of the coal mining process, а first approximation model for monitoring the quality of coal mined and a probability-graphical model for clarifying existing new knowledge on the uncertainty and unreliability of data presented in the form of the Bayesian network. Research results. On the basis of the created graph representing the change in the quality of coal extracted, the production problem was solved in evaluating the definition and understanding of which indicators have influenced the change in the quality of coal extracted in the form of the Bayesian network and the Algebraic Bayesian network. They are an acyclic graph with the top «Influence of major mining and technological indicators on the quality of coal extracted», which in turn determines the next level of peaks «Numerical estimation (obtained from the previous stage of model construction), allowing to determine the allowable level of extracted coal» and «Quality of mining operations» a set of these representations is fundamental for the complex indicator of quality of extracted coal. In addition to these indicators, vertices are introduced about the existence of certain deviations. As a result, the post-test probability of estimating the influence of the change in the allowable level of coal and the quality of mining operations on the complex indicator of extracted coal is P (Hi | E) = 0.025. Discussion. We can conclude that the posterior probability P (Hi | E) = 0.025 is less than a priori P (Н1) = 0.057 because it includes two basic indicators of express testing and dynamic geometry. This makes it possible to speak about the influence of newly obtained information on the complex indicator of the extracted coal, which appears as the front of exploration and exploitation works to produce real-time mining geometric models of the deposit. These, in turn, serve as the basis for operational planning of coal production in terms of quantity and quality. Conclusion. The study found that the quality of mining operations has a significant impact on the integrated quality of coal produced, which in turn forms the main indicator of dynamic geometry. The study is complicated by the fact that there is a need to establish the regularities of the spatial placement of components and their variability at the spent and developed sites of the deposit. Resume. The article presents the results of research in the form of a method of construction of dynamic model of quality management of mined coal on complex-structural deposits with consideration of existing data and knowledge uncertainties. The application of the Bayesian network has been found to be useful for a more detailed study and refinement of existing new knowledge on the process of quality management of extracted coal under condition

Number of views: 141

Spatio-temporal analysis of the ameliorative state of lands in the foothill, steppe and forest-steppe zones of the Altai Territory

Vera L. Snezhko, Dmitrii M. Benin, Nadezhda V. Gavrilovskaya, Alexander V. Shishkin

The problem of land degradation is global throughout the world. Many studies have noted that land reclamation can adversely affect their quality. In Russia and a number of countries of the post-Soviet space, the quality of land is assessed by such an indicator as the ameliorative state. The purpose of the research was the spatio-temporal analysis of the ameliorative state of the lands of the Altai Territory in the forest-steppe, steppe and foothill zone. The object of study was chosen due to the diversity of its landscape and climate variability due to the influence of mountain systems. Such general scientific research methods as analysis and synthesis, as well as applied methods were used: multivariate data analysis (cluster and regression analysis), GIS technologies. The calculations were made in the STATISTICA package, the significance level in all calculations was taken equal to 0.05. Research results. The structure of agricultural lands on rain-fed and reclaimed lands in each agrochemical zone has been determined. In the structure of lands, the share of arable land on reclaimed lands is higher than on rainfed lands. This is due to a significant increase in productivity during land reclamation. The share of reclaimed lands with perennial plantations in the foothill zone is 12 times higher than that of rainfed lands. The deposit in the foothill zone is only on rainfed lands. Clustering of 25 districts was completed according to the state of reclaimed land at the beginning of 2015 and 2022. The regions of the region that have reduced or increased the ameliorative state of the lands have been identified. The rate of change in the land area corresponding to each ameliorative state is estimated. The oldest reclamation systems are located in the steppe zone of the Altai Territory, which affects the dynamics of changes in the quality of reclamated lands. The reclamation state of the lands in the foothill zone remained unchanged; statistically insignificant trends were revealed in the forest-steppe zone. In conclusion, the results of the calculations are summarized. For the period 2015-2022 the area of reclaimed land has not changed. The region is characterized by the predominance of lands of good and satisfactory ameliorative condition, regardless of the agrochemical zones. The changes revealed by the typification of areas according to the reclamation state of lands at the beginning and end of the period are mainly due to a decrease in the reclamation state of lands in the steppe zone with the transition from good to satisfactory.

Number of views: 151

Modelling of belt conveyor movement considering the inclination angle and tension of the ropes of the load bearing structure

Pyae A. Kaung, Danila Y. Solovykh, Dmitriy A. Nagorniy, Danila A. Adigamov

Introduction. The relevance of the work is caused by the need to eliminate the arising automatic vibration processes of the pendent roller of the conveyor linear sections relative to roller pendant and minimization of vibration synchronization processes of a significant number of pendent rollers, leading to a conveyor stop. Previous studies have established that the most effective way to transport coarse material in underground mining is a belt conveyor. These studies have identified the disadvantages of conveyor transportation.The most common ones include the auto-vibration of the pendent roller of the conveyor linear sections relative to roller pendant. The manifestation of roller automatic vibrations increases the energy intensity of the process and reduces the performance of the belt conveyor. Objective. To set the angle of the conveyor belt inclination and the tension of the ropes of the load-bearing structure with the lowest amplitude vibrations of the pendent roller in order to reduce the energy intensity of the transportation process during the deposit development and increase the operational performance of the conveyor. Task. Modeling the possibility of manifestation and causes of occurrence, as well as the circumstances of long-term preservation of roller automatic vibrationson conveyors. Materials and methods of research. The object of the study is a conveyor belt with different angles of inclination (transportation).The authors conducted analysis and summary of previously performed own research; comparison with newly obtained experimental results; as well as a generalization of theoretical and experimental studies carried out by scientists in this field; synthesizing literature and patent data. Reliabilityis confirmed with application of actual state standards and approved research methodology. Boundary conditions are accepted: conveying of ordinary medium- and small- sizedmaterials is carried out; there is a constant unit load on the belt during transportation. Two types of connection are considered: the presence of an anchoring branch of roller with the ropes; absence of an anchoring branch that is the hinged connection of roller with the ropes. Research results. It has been established that when the belt moves with a load, the pendent roller deflects along the direction of the belt movement, regardless of the type of anchoring. The angle of the side roller inclination is calculated through the sliding velocity relative to the belt. The characteristics of sliding friction or change in sliding friction coefficient are modeled. The influence of the pendent roller mass on the process of automatic vibrationsat various angles of conveyor inclination has been evaluated. The reason for the occurrence of automatic vibrationsis established. Conclusion. Design changes that prevent side roller misalignment are recommended to reduce the likelihood of automatic vibrations.The side roller misalignment angle interval, beyond which stable conveyor operation is achieved, is determined. Resume. The results of the research can be useful in designing the conveyor when transporting the extracted raw materials.

Number of views: 139

Safety ensuring in the implementation of new technologies for tunneling and production faces

Sergey M. Nikitenko, Sergey S. Kubrin, Yury V. Malakhov

Introduction. New technologies and high-capacity equipment provide the intensification of technological processes in drifting and working faces that leads to changes of dust and aerodynamic processes that as a rule are not able to emphasize modern methods of explosion safety control in coal mines. Thus the process of introducing new technologies faces a number of features that require the development of new approaches of solving the safe mining issues in practice. One of these issues is the significant amount of organic aerosol formation, that is not measured by modern methods of explosion safety control in coal mines, but its presence in a methane-air environment can significantly shift the ignition threshold and significantly increase the rate of pressure rise during an explosion. Research methods and materials. Authors method of determination level of dust formation with special devices consisting of two filters placed vertically and horizontally in special well-room and distributed in several mine workings profile perimeter contours is proposed. Research results. As a solution the authors proposed a method for the rapid determination of the level of deposited dust in the mine workings that allows to prevent its possible explosion. Also schemes of special devices placement for measuring the level of dust formation at the sides of the mine workings are given. Using the prototype of multifunctional mechanized walking support developed by the authors in combination with high-performance combines the risks arising from the introduction of technologies for high-speed spilling of underground mining and mining of difficult coal reserves are demonstrated. The assessment of mining-geological and technological risks of stopping the technological process during the introduction of new technologies was made, a method of assessment the components that impact the risk of explosion of a dust-methane-air mixture in mine workings was developed. Discussion. Based on the identified risks of stopping the technological process the authors recommend taking into account technological aspects that may lead to accidents or incidents related both to the design feature of new types of high-performance equipment and to the sequence and duration of the stages of the main technological processes of disintegration and transportation of the recaptured rock mass. Conclusion. Interval of performing events of making mine workings safe is determined for preventing risks of explosion of a dust-methane-air mixture during coal-face work with high-performance equipment based on author’s methods of measuring determination level of dust formation Resume. As a result it is concluded that the effective introduction of new technological processes is impossible without accurate and operational control of the dust formation level in mine workings that is especially important with constantly increasing pounding on drifting and working faces. However, the experience of practical testing the authors method shows that it is necessary to investigate an additional research of the mechanism of dust formation and its nanoscale component for a reliable assessment of the coal dust explosive index and its influence to ignition process and risks of explosion of a dust-methane-air mixture.

Number of views: 146

Deceleration interval optimization during short-delayed blasting of overburden in the sections of Kuzbass

Viktor S. Fedotenko, Stanislav V. Matva

Introduction. The solution of the level maintaining problem of blasting negative impact on the environment and protected objects within acceptable values while simultaneously increasing the volume and intensity of preparation of overburden by drilling and blasting lies in the field of improving methods and means, as well as optimizing the parameters of blasting, including by determining the optimal values of deceleration intervals during short-delayed blasting of overburden. Research methods and materials. To solve this problem, an algorithm was developed implemented in a software package that allows calculating the number of wells being blown up simultaneously; modeling and visually demonstrating the development of an explosion; calculating combinations of values of deceleration values of short-delayed blasting between rows of wells and between wells in a row; quantifying the quality of the found combination of values of deceleration values of short-delayed blasting and visually displaying how much the mass explosion proceeds uniformly in time, as well as the total duration of the explosion. Research results. The calculation of deceleration values combinations of short-delayed blasting between rows of wells and between wells in a row is performed depending on the number of rows of wells and the number of wells in a row for the selected number of wells exploding simultaneously. It is established that with an increase in the number of rows of wells, the number of points corresponding to a particular number of wells being blown up simultaneously (in the interval of 20 ms) decreases. At the same time, the sets of points corresponding to each next step of increasing the number of rows partially belong to the set of points corresponding to the previous step, and solutions for different values of the number of wells in a series with a constant number of rows are mutually exclusive. It is shown that with an increase in the values of the deceleration intervals, the quality of the solution increases in the case of a constant number of wells exploding simultaneously. Conclusion. The choice of optimal deceleration intervals during drilling and blasting operations is an effective way to control the seismic impact on protected objects. Increasing the deceleration to a value that ensures the formation of additional exposed surfaces is effective from the point of view of providing a complex effect as a result of an explosion, as a combination of the possibility of obtaining the required quality of rock crushing and reducing the seismic impact on protected objects. Resume. The developed algorithm, implemented in the software package, makes it possible to efficiently calculate the number of wells exploding simultaneously, find the optimal combination of values of deceleration values, quantify the quality of the found combination. For a more adequate assessment of the expected seismic impact, it is necessary to calculate the ratio of the duration of the period of non-maximum intensity of explosions to the total duration of explosions, expressed as a percentage. The larger the calculated value, the less seismic impact the explosion will have when comparing explosions with an equal number of wells exploding simultaneously.

Number of views: 112
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ISSN 1998-4502 (Print)                                                            ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)