The article presents data on the current topic of conservation and reproduction of oak forests in the arid conditions of the Lower Volga region on various relief elements. The article contains the result of long-term studies of oak forests of the Lower Volga region, the main predominant species of which is the petiolate oak (Quercusrobur L.). It was found that on soils of the Lower Volga region poor in humus composition with dissected relief and difficult weather conditions, the plantations of the petiolate oak fully justified themselves. It was revealed that oaks have good growth on chestnut, light chestnut and chernozem soils, and moderate on sandy, biologically stable, moreover, species with a high content of chlorophyll show the best performance. It was determined that the most effective way to create oak forests is to exclude 25-40% of the parent trees that showed the worst results during research. Otherwise, the plantings may face a decline in radial growth, loss of part of the crown and often shrinkage. Рurpose of the research. Bio-ecological assessment of species of the genus Quercus, aspects of the formation of oak forests on uplands and flat landscapes for afforestation in arid conditions of the south of the European territory of Russia. The object of research was the plantings of the pedunculate oak (Quercusrobur L.), which has an extensive range. Observations were carried out in the Volgograd region in the arboretum collections of the Federal Research Center of Agro-ecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, at the Shemyakinskaya dacha – the oak grove of the Uryupinsky forestry, geographical oak cultures in the Oktyabrsky forestry, genetic and breeding complexes of oak in the Novoanninsky forestry, in the Rossoshansky forestry of the Voronezh region, the system of protective forest plantations in the Bogdinsky forestry of the Astrakhan region and the Elistinsky forestry of the Republic of Kalmykia. Research methodology. The water content in oak leaves was determined by the weight method by the hour during the day (1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 5 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h). Weather conditions and oak habitats were studied using the sites "Climate monitor" and "Agroatlas". The typology of forest growing conditions within the ALMR was characterized taking into account the forest suitability of soils developed by VNIALMI (now the Federal Research Centre for Agro-ecology, Complex Reclamation and Protective Afforestation). Based on the analysis of the results of all experimental materials, an integral indicator of the frost resistance of prototypes and control was calculated. Individual indicators of reproductive processes of clones were compared with the characteristics of control trees, revealing their correlations. The chlorophyll content was measured using the MS-100 device. Statistical data processing was carried out in the programs Statistica and Fractan. Research results and discussion. The intensity of growth of this species is determined by the geographical environment and the conditions of the place of growth. According to the results of the research, the petiolate oak showed excellent ecological and geographical plasticity and the ability to grow and develop in various conditions – from fine-grained leached sands of the Astrakhan and Elista experimental stations to light chestnut and dark chestnut soils of the Volgograd region, chernozem soils of the Novoanninsky and Uryupinsky forestry. The best growth and development were distinguished by the plants of the petiolate oak in conditions of macro-subsidence with dark-colored humus soils. A high percentage of oak trees with good condition were noted by the authors on micropropagations, meadow-chestnut slightly saline soils. There were no oak trees in good condition on flat, settled areas with the presence of saline spots. In the southern part of the Lower Volga region (Elista), oak
Using the example of the UNESCO Global Geopark "Yangan-Tau", the article presents a methodology for inventorying geological heritage objects as part of the natural heritage. The mechanism for assessing their scientific, educational and tourist significance is disclosed, the geoconservation is substantiated. The objects of geological heritage are ranked according to the value of the international, national, regional and local level. The application of the developed methodology will allow regional geoparks to approach the criteria indicators of UNESCO global geoparks. Introduction. UNESCO Global Geoparks demonstrate a model of effective management of the territory on which they are located. The status of the geopark is confirmed by seven criteria established by the UNESCO International Program on Geoparks and Geosciences. The first two of them are implemented, among other things, by conducting a detailed inventory of geological objects. The aim of research is to develop a methodology for the inventory of geological heritage objects (geo objects) of regional geoparks based on the assessment of their scientific, educational, tourist, environmental significance and the geoconservation in order to approach the criteria indicators of UNESCO Global Geoparks. Methodology. The inventory methodology involves an expert assessment of the scientific, educational and tourist value of objects, the geoconservation, the allocation of criteria for evaluating scientific, educational, tourist significance and the geoconservation, the development of indicators to determine the level of value. Results. The methodology was tested on the basis of geological heritage objects presented in the nomination dossier of the Yangan-Tau UNESCO global geopark in the Republic of Bashkortostan. The methodology revealed that over 60% of geological heritage sites have high scientific and educational significance. More than 30% of geosites have tourist significance. 12.5% of geosites require protection and preservation measures. The results of the application of the methodology demonstrated that international and national geosites have high scientific and educational significance. They are characterized by a better level of security, which guarantees the absence of significant threats. Objects of regional and local importance have medium and low scientific value, although their educational significance is quite high, and for tourists it varies between high and medium levels. Conclusion. The possibility of a regional geopark joining the UNESCO network of global geoparks is conditioned by compliance with the criteria approved by the UNESCO International Program on Geoparks and Geosciences, including various aspects of sustainable development of the territory. The methodology of inventory of geological heritage sites will allow regional geoparks to identify their strengths and weaknesses in order to approach the criteria indicators of UNESCO Global Geoparks.
The Arctic zone of Russia is a territory where such minerals as gold and other precious metals are concentrated. Most often, the development of such deposits is carried out by an open method. The conditions hindering its use should be considered: the depth of distribution of permafrost and significant amplitude of changes in atmospheric air temperature during the year, month and day. The consequence of the alternation in depth of temperature zones may be the formation of recirculation zones in which harmful substances accumulate. Purpose of work. Study of the formation of velocity and temperature fields in a quarry under natural ventilation, taking into account the complex dynamics of atmospheric air temperature. Research methods. Systematization, generalization and analysis of theoretical and experimental studies in this area, including those carried out at the considered fields. Analysis of the results of mathematical modeling of aerodynamic processes in a quarry. Results. It is noted that to assess the peculiarities of formation of the mine atmosphere parameters it is sufficient to carry out only mathematical modeling of aerodynamic processes allowing to define the conditions of temperature inversions formation and dimensions of recirculation zones being potentially dangerous for accumulation of pollutants. The methodology of aerodynamic processes modeling taking into account the geometry of the pit space, temperature gradient, speed and direction of the wind flow is proposed. It is shown that at positive and negative temperature differences for the two investigated air media the development of recirculation movement zones of air masses that assure the accumulation of pollutants which in turn leads to reduced efficiency of natural ventilation in the pit, is characteristic. The conclusion has been made on the necessity to apply additional engineering measures during the period of inversion formation with negative temperature gradient in order to normalize the pit air parameters.
Introduction. The constant increase in the consumption of mineral resources leads to the depletion of available reserves and a sharp increase in the depth of field development. In addition, reserves that were previously classified as off-balance sheet and the development of which is economically inefficient at the time of the assessment of technical and economic calculations are involved in the development of minerals: low metal content; location within water protection zones, settlements, structures, agricultural facilities, nature reserves, monuments of nature, history and culture. Involvement in the development of areas of deposits with a low content of a useful component in ore increases the costs of extraction, transportation and processing, as well as the formation of more man-made waste. The main way to ensure the sustainable development of the mining region is the use of mineral deposit development systems with a hardening bookmark and the involvement of man-made waste in a closed production cycle. The use of geotechnology with a bookmark helps to increase the completeness and quality of the extraction of reserves of the deposit, protects the hydrogeological regime and reduces the degree of crack development in the underworked array, which leads to the preservation of the water-proof thickness and protects the daytime surface from collapse. Geotechnology with a bookmark allows you to work out previously abandoned targets, which increases the mineral resource base of the mining enterprise and increases the life of the mine and allows you to solve the social issue of the region where the mining enterprise is the city-forming. The use of man-made waste from mining and processing and metallurgical enterprises in the preparation of the laying composite leads to their disposal. Utilization of man-made waste with geotechnology with a bookmark leads to a decrease in the volume of man-made storage facilities, which reduces the cost of their creation and maintenance. All this contributes to the implementation of the concept of waste-free production, the integrated development of natural and man-made resources, the sustainable development of the mining region and the reduction of the impact of mining and metallurgical industries on the environment. Purpose of research. Introduction of technologies that ensure the completeness of mineral extraction and safe mining operations with minimal environmental impact. Research methods. G eneralization of theoretical and experimental studies carried out by scientists in this field, synthesis of literary and patent data, analysis and summary of previously performed own research, comparison of theoretical calculation data on mathematical models with the experimental results obtained, application of current state standards, approved research methodology, use of calibrated and serviceable equipment. Materials were activated in a DESI-11 laboratory disintegrator, compression samples were tested on a PI-2000-A test press, and the reliability was confirmed by the repeatability of the results with a sufficient number of experiments. Research results. The possibility of replacing the traditional components of the laying composite with man-made waste without loss of regulatory characteristics and improvement of its rheological properties is substantiated. The necessity of applying mechanical activation treatment of the components of the laying composite in order to improve its rheological characteristics and the strength of the array after solidification is proved. The demand for resource-reproducing technologies that allow the most complete use of the technogenic mineral resource potential of the mining and processing enterprise, which will lead to a multiplicative ecological and economic effect, has been confirmed. It is established that the sustainable development of the mining and processing region is impossible without highly eff
Introduction. Issues of formation of maximum expenses and their forecast, risk extreme flow rates on the rivers of Armenia represents a significant interest for consumers of water resources. The works of scientists of the Republic of Armenia are devoted to the solution of this problem: (Vardanyan T. G., Muradyan Z. Z., 2014), forecasting the maximum water flow for the Jermuk hydrological station on the Arpa River (Misakyan A. E., Azizyan L. V., Azizyan A. O., 2014), assessment of long-term fluctuations of the maximum runoff of rivers in the mountainous territories of Armenia in the context of global changes climate (Margaryan V. G., Ovcharuk V. A., Goptsy M. V. Borovskaya G. A., 2020). This paper analyzes the risks of extreme spring runoff river flood Arpa (Republic of Armenia) related to degree assessment the danger of flood waves. Problem solving can help prevent economic damage and loss of life, and raise issue of extreme runoff risk management. Unlike listed works, this study uses longer series of actual observations and a certain section of the river. Purpose of research. Assessment and management of hydrological risks during the period spring flood in the river basin Arpa. Methods. The work used the methods: of mathematical-statistical, extrapolation, analysis, analogy, correlation. Results. Correlations between the values of the modulus of extreme costs 1 and 10 % security and weighted average height drainage basin, as well as the relatively close relationship between the average values of extreme costs for the periods 2001–2020 and 1981–2000 biennium, integral curve of extreme flow rates of floods in the section Yeghegnadzor of the Arpa River. These dependencies can be used to preliminary estimates of the maximum runoff of the spring flood unexplored rivers of the considered territory. To manage and planning of extreme water resources, multifactorial dependencies that can be applied when making forecasts. The rate of extreme flow rates of the spring flood has been calculated, coefficients of variability (Cv) and skewness (Cs), absolute maximum costs of various security. Conclusion. Average values of extreme water flow rates of the river. Arpa for the period 2001–2020 mostly inferior or slightly higher than average values for the period 1981–2000. In the Arpa river basin from 1981 to 2020 year mainly there is a tendency of decreasing extreme river flow, that is, the degree of risk of extreme expenses.
As a result of coal mining, the natural landscapes of the Kemerovo region are involved in the process of global
technogenic transformation. As a result of open-pit coal mining, catastrophic changes occur in ecosystems, which are accompanied by the destruction of the litho logical basis, degradation, transformation and displacement of huge tracts of soil cover. The aim is to study agro physical, agrochemical, sanitary and epidemiological indicators of soil samples of technogenically disturbed territories of Kuzbass. Objects of research. Samples of the surface layer of the external rock dump of LLC "Korchakolsky Section" the dump rock and the surface layer of the nearby territory, of the forest belt of the processing plant of LLC "JV "Barzassky Partnership" and the Taldinsky coal mine. The samples of undisturbed lands selected near the museum-reserve "Tomskaya Pisanitsa" were used as a reference. Methods. Agro physical (hygroscopic humidity, wilting humidity, soil density, soil porosity) and agrochemical (water and salt pH, total alkalinity, hydrolytic acidity, sum of exchange bases, dry residue, content of Cl–, SO₄2–, HCO3–, NO3–, Ca2+,Mg2+, Al) analysis of selected soil samples, including the content of pollutants of anthropogenic origin. The sanitary and epidemiological indicators of the samples were studied. Methods of chemical and instrumental analysis (electrochemical, chromatographic, molecular absorption spectroscopy) were used for research. Results. The analysis of the degree of technogenic disturbance of the studied landscapes is carried out. Samples of LLC JV "Barzassky Partnership" can be attributed to sandy loam soils of a slightly alkaline type. The nickel content exceeded the MPC by 1.26 times; the BGCP index by 25.25 times. Samples of the Korchakolsky section are attributed to sandy soils of a slightly alkaline type. The content of mobile phosphorus exceeded the MPC by 3.40 times, zinc by 1.1 times, nickel by 1.22 times, arsenic by 2.15 times; the BGCP index by 29.41 times. The samples of JSC Taldinsky Coal Mine are classified as sandy loam with a neutral reaction. The content of the mobile form of phosphorus exceeded the MPC by 5.22 times; nickel by 1.5 times; arsenic by 1.67 times. The samples of the reference soil are attributed to clay soils of a slightly alkaline type. The content of the mobile form of phosphorus exceeded the MPC by 2.27 times; nickel by 1.17 times, the BGCP index by 62.62 times. Conclusions. Based on the analysis of the composition of dump and quarry landscapes of technogenically disturbed territories of the Kemerovo region, detoxification of soils with the use of biological reclamation is recommended.
Volcano arabica coffee is one of the best coffee derived from Gayo Highlands, Aceh Province, Indonesia. That coffee was cultivated in a volcanic region, therefore as known as Gayo volcano arabica coffee. Several varieties from Gayo volcano arabica coffee were included Borbor, Timtim, and P88. Gayo volcano arabica coffee was a low caffeine coffee with a taste exceeding the Blue Mountain coffee from Jamaica which was determined using sensory assessment. This study aims to conduct a sensory taste assessment from Gayo volcano arabica coffee variety using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method. The AHP method is one of the easiest methods to produce an output calculated based on the input and weight value. Sensory assessment criteria have consisted the flavour, sweetness, aftertaste, body, and acidity. The preference for the best criteria based on the panellists was included taste (0.280), then the sweet criteria (0.253), after tasting (0.212); body (0.140); and acidity (0.115). The estimation was tested with a consistency ratio under 0.1 (10%). The results of the sensory assessment of the acceptance of Gayo volcano arabica coffee products showed that the P-88 variety with full-wash processing (0.206) was the product with the highest approval. Then followed by the Borbor variety with full-wash (0.176) and semi-wash processing (0.166), then the Timtim variety with semi-wash (0.166) and full-wash processing (0.164). The P-88 variety with semi-wash processing (P88) was the product with the lowest level of acceptance by the panellists. This finding was most important for the commercial development of arabica volcano coffee in the future. The varieties associated with the highest acceptable taste became the better necessary varieties to cultivation and developt for farmers and agroindustry.
Introduction. The article discusses the design of an improved belt-wheel conveyor with an intermediate pinion drive. The use of such a belt-wheel conveyor eliminates the need to use mobile crushing units and intermediate conveyor loading devices. The transfer of the drive from the end sprockets to the intermediate ones installed on the lifting section of the conveyor route significantly reduces the efforts in traction chains and running rollers and reduces the volume of mining and capital works. The introduction of a planetary differential mechanism between both drive sprockets ensures an even distribution of the traction load between both traction chains. At the same time, the possibility of misalignment of the running supports and the associated increased wear of the running rollers is excluded. Conveyor transport is the most effective means for lifting rock mass. The fundamental difference between belt-wheeled conveyors is the exclusion of rolling of the load-bearing belt along stationary roller supports. The joint movement of the conveyor belt and the closed loop with running supports provide the possibility of moving large-lump mining loads with piece sizes up to 1200 mm or more, which eliminates the need for secondary crushing of loads in mobile crushing units. The purpose of the research: the use of an improved belt-wheel conveyor with an intermediate pinion drive for the transportation of large-sized cargoes. Research methodology. A comparative analysis of the designs and parameters of lifting conveyors was carried out in order to ensure non-overloading lifting of loads from deep quarries with a further increase in depth. Research results and discussion. As a result of a comparative analysis of the conveyor designs and parameters, the most optimal variant of a belt-wheel conveyor with an intermediate pinion drive using a planetary differential mechanism was established. Conclusions: 1. Studies of the design of an improved belt-wheel conveyor with an intermediate pinion drive have been carried out. 2. It is established that the introduction of a planetary differential mechanism between both drive sprockets ensures an even distribution of the traction load between both traction chains. 3 It was found that the transfer of intermediate drives of lifting belt-wheel conveyors from the head end sprockets to the sprockets installed on the upper section of the bend of the conveyor route can significantly reduce the load on the traction chains and running rollers of the supports. 4. It is determined that the transfer of the drive from the end sprockets to the intermediate ones installed on the lifting section of the conveyor route significantly reduces the efforts in traction chains and running rollers and reduces the volume of mining and capital works. 5. It is confirmed that the introduction of a planetary differential mechanism between the shafts of the drive sprockets ensures a uniform distribution of the drive force between the two traction chains, excluding the possibility of misalignment
of the running supports and the associated increased wear of the running rollers.
Introduction. As the actual data show, the safety of coalmines is the most vulnerable in the event of explosions
of methane and coal dust, often accompanied by a complex manifestation and implementation of several hazardous factors, such as gas, dust, exogenous fires, leading to catastrophic consequences. To assess, predict, manage and reduce the consequences of the complex implementation of dangerous aerological factors in the occurrence of accidents in coalmines, a methodology has been developed for assessing and managing aerological risks in coalmines, based on the hierarchical structure of aerological risk. Objective. Assessment, forecasting, management and reduction of rank III aerological risks for extraction areas and development workings of highly gas-rich coalmines. Methodology. To assess, predict, control and reduce the consequences of the complex implementation of hazardous production factors in the occurrence of accidents associated with explosions of gas and dust in coal mines, a methodology has been developed for assessing and managing aerological risks in coal mines, based on a systematic approach in accordance with the hierarchical structure of aerological safety. The aerological safety of mines can be quantified in terms of aerological risks: the lower the risks, the higher the safety. All aerological risks were divided into three ranks according to their importance in the production activities of the mine, corresponding to the hierarchical structure of the aerological safety of the mine. Aerological risks of the I rank are understood as aerological risks covering the entire mine, aerological risks of the II rank cover layers, wings, deposits; aerological risks of III rank cover separate mining or development sites. Comparison of mines by aerological risks should be made according to aerological risks of the same rank. When performing research, an analysis of literary domestic and foreign sources was used; generally accepted methods, including methods of mathematical statistics and probability theory; a method of expert assessments to obtain the values of the hazard and vulnerability coefficients of ventilation methods for excavation areas and development workings. Results and discussion. A methodology has been developed for constructing a hierarchical structure of aerological risks in coal mines. A block diagram of aerological risks of III rank has been compiled, including the main hazards in the excavation areas and development workings and the main types of vulnerability of the ventilation schemes of the excavation areas and the methods of ventilation of dead-end workings. Calculations have shown that when developing the most dangerous mine seams, the lowest values of aerological risk of III rank for excavation areas are characterized by combined ventilation schemes in the absence of a diagonal connection in the scheme; the presence of an unstable diagonal connection in the ventilation scheme of the excavation area increases the aerological risk by 2.7 times. For development workings carried out along seams prone to rock bumps, spontaneous combustion, sudden outbursts of coal and gas, with a specific dust emission of more than 1200 g/t, only ventilation methods with a high degree of gas mixing activity in the bottomhole zone can be applicable. Conclusions. The developed hierarchical structure of aerological risks makes it possible to rank risks by levels and compare risks of the same rank. The application of the developed risk assessment methodology makes it possible to predict and reduce aerological risks in the design and operation of coal mines.
Introduction. Currently, a large number of scientific, technical, technological and organizational studies are being conducted in order to reduce the cost of underground coal mining. This is due to a certain decrease in the cost of coal, both on the world and on the domestic market. It should be noted that the complex mechanized face of a coal mine is the beginning of the technological chain of underground coal mining, on which the activity of the entire coal mining enterprise depends. In addition, the growth of digitalization in other industries is pushing mining enterprises to implement modern digital solutions in their organizations. Therefore, special attention should be paid to modeling the operating modes of equipment for complex mechanized coal mine face. The purpose of the research is to build simulation models of the main technological equipment of a complex mechanized coal mine face with a sufficient degree of adequacy to real equipment. Research methodology. The article uses simulation modeling of equipment for complex mechanized coal mine face, presented in the Matlab software product (models of a dredging combine, a lava conveyor, a crusher, a loader). The Eickhoff SL-300 (option 4) acts as a prototype of the simulation model of the dredging combine, the prototype of the avalanche conveyor model is the FFC–9 Glinik conveyor, the prototype of the crusher model is the FLB-10G Glinik crusher, the prototype of the loader model is the FSL-9 Glinik loader. It should be noted that this equipment is installed at the excavation site of the Polysaevskaya coal mine of the Komsomolets mine Management of SUEK-Kuzbass JSC. The presented simulation models of the equipment of complex mechanized coal mine face allow you to set different values, both in electrical and technological parameters. Research results. As a result of the conducted research, simulation models of complex mechanized slaughter of highperformance coal with a high degree of adequacy were obtained. Conclusions. The proposed simulation models of the complex mechanized face of a high-performance coal mine will allow us to investigate the operating modes and optimize them according to the criterion of increased energy efficiency, which will affect the reduction of the cost of coal mining by underground method.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)