The abstract is a shot summary of a large scientific work that is published apart from the main text and that is why it must be clear without any reference to the publication. It should state essential facts and not exaggerate or have material that is missing in the maim part of the article.
The abstract has a function of informational tool (for libraries, for abstract service), it helps the reader to realize if he should read or not to read the whole text and includes:
1. The purposes of the work in short form. The question history can be given only if it is connected with the purpose.
2. short summary of the main facts of the article. Besides it is necessary
- to follow chronologies of the article and use all its titles as instructions;
-not to include unnecessary details;
- to use specific terminology of your discipline clearly expressing your opinion and not forgetting that you write for competent international reader;
- the text must be connected with the use of the following words: "consequently", "for example", "the benefits of this study", "as a result" etc. or the separate statements should logically follow each other;
- to use active not passive voice, that is instead of " It was tested in this study" "The study tested". (the most frequent mistake in Russian abstracts);
- the letter style must be compact so the sentences will probably be longer than usual.
The examples of how not to write the abstracts are given here : (http://www.emeraldinsight.com/authors/guides/write/abstracts.htm?part=3&).
On the editorial office website you can find the examples of good abstracts for different types of articles (reviews, scientific articles, conceptual articles, practical articles): http://www.emeraldinsight.com/authors/guides/write/abstracts.htm?part=2&PHPSESSID=hdac5 rtkb73ae013ofk4g8nrv1.
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