Objective. The purpose of the research is to assess the indicators of aerological risk in the development workings of highly gas-rich coal mines. Introduction. The results of a retrospective analysis are presented, substantiating that the vast majority of explosions of dust-methane-air mixtures occur in development workings, and 63.8% of their gassing with methane to explosive concentrations is associated with ventilation disorders. Methodology. The assessment of aerological risk consists in the calculation of some indicators that reflect the measure of danger, in which an accident may occur, caused by the excess of the values of the mine atmosphere parameters in comparison with the normative ones. Indicators of the main hazards and vulnerability of ventilation schemes and methods make up the general structure of risk in development workings. Results. The methodological bases for assessing and forecasting the aerological risk of accidents in development workings are presented. A formula for calculating the predictive indicator of aerological risk is given. In accordance with the methodology, it is possible to quantify the reduction in the level of aerological risk when managing outgassing with the help of degassing. Discussion. Calculations have shown that the schemes and methods of ventilation of dead-end workings, in which there is a large degree of influence of the activity of mixing gases in the bottomhole zone and a small degree of influence of the exhaust gas zone on ventilation, are the most effective, with a normal level of safety. The values of the predicted upper-air risk indicator reach unity for the schemes and methods of ventilation of dead-end workings with a low degree of gas mixing activity in the bottomhole zone and a high degree of influence of the exhaust gas zone on ventilation, which indicates an extremely high level of explosiveness. Conclusions. Application of the developed methodology allows not only forecasting aerological risks during design, but also justification of aerological safety.
Introduction. Sustainable development of regions with high subsoil use demands performance improvement in gas cooling at compressor stations of main gas pipelines and environmental safety. Low energy prices specified the design parameters of gas transmission units throughout the boost of the gas industry. Therefore, the crucial task is to enhance the economic efficiency of main gas pipelines. One of the most energy-intensive units here is the cooling system of transported gas, which enables the reduction in operating costs. Gas air-cooling units used for cooling transported gas flow have spread significantly being notable for their increased energy output. Simulation methods of fan system parameters in gas air cooling units are assuming great importance in a rapidly globalizing world depending on their specific speed. Research objective. This study aims to develop a simulation model and guidelines on the construction of fans with high specific speed comparable cost-effectively to industrial fans. To support business objectives it is essential to specify the principles of cost-efficiency variation from that of specific speed, the influence of geometric and kinematic parameters, to conduct an experimental investigation to verify the results. Materials and methods. The research was based on a hypothesis for the consistency of the ratio between the pressure loss in a fan and the specific energy of transferrable air. Aerodynamic efficiency was accepted as a criterion for a fan local efficiency in order to determine the dependency of fan cost-effectiveness against its specific speed. Basic equations of fluid mechanics and theory of optimization were used as research mathematical tools. Results and discussion. In this study, we have established the influence pattern of the structural elements of a fan air duct and its geometrical parameters on the efficiency over a wide range of alterations of specific speed. We have obtained a mathematical model of correlation between geometrical and kinematic parameters of fans and their cost-effectiveness in a function of specific speed and residual flow swirl. The study has proved that it is essential to improve the aerodynamic quality of impeller airfoils and reduce the aerodynamic drag of air duct elements with the increase in specific speed of fans to extend their cost-effectiveness. Conclusion. The research described in this paper confirms the commercial importance of utilizing fans in air-cooling units according to aerodynamic configurations with a single wheel “K” and high specific speed ny ≥400, as far as they provide the highest possible aerodynamic efficiency at minimum weight dimension characteristics. The paper shows the capability of designing aerodynamic configurations of fan units of high specific speed ny ≥ 400 with the efficiency ≥ 0,85 where ԑy ≤ 0,2 achieves aerodynamic efficiency of impeller sections К ≥ 25. It has been established that the optimal region of theoretical pressure coefficient of fan units with a specific speed 380≤ny≤450 is located in the range 0,02<ΨТ <0,08. We have determined that when the aerodynamic drag coefficient of an air duct of a fan unit is equal to ԑy ≥ 1,2, its efficiency declines by more than 25 percent relative to ԑy ≤ 0,1. The authors have designed an aerodynamic scheme and produced an industrial prototype of a fan unit OGM VU 2.7-1.2 K3 with OV- 121TOH airfoils.
Ensuring the sustainable development of mining territories is impossible without the rational use of natural resources – minerals during their extraction and primary processing. So, at the stage of mining operations, it is necessary to establish the normative value of losses and dilution of minerals. This value is determined taking into account mining and geological, technological, economic, organizational factors. The normative value of losses and dilution ensures the maximum possible economic effect from the applied geotechnology and primary processing of recoverable reserves. In addition, in order to implement full-fledged rationing, it is necessary to identify the main types of losses and dilution and establish the causes of their formation. The researchers found that the normalization of recovery indicators is possible in the case of searching for the level of losses and dilution at the contact of the deposit, that is, when these indicators are interdependent. For the conditions of most deposits with almost any method and system of development, this is the only type of normalized losses and dilution. The only exceptions are underground mining systems with the collapse of ore and host rocks. All other extraction indicators are determined analytically, experimentally, statistically, by direct measurement. For the conditions of development of the Novo-Uchalinsky deposit by underground geotechnology, the main types of extraction indicators are identified, their causes are established, recommendations are given for determining their magnitude and rationing. Thus, losses in the array and in the beaten form are highlighted, such as losses due to the complexity of the contact and in the corners of the camera, losses on the bottom of the camera and in the baseboards. Dilution occurs in the following types – from the complexity of contact, vaulting in the roof of the chamber, laying on the side of neighboring chambers, from mixing rock in rock dykes. Rationing is carried out by losses and dilution due to the complexity of the contact, in addition, it is possible to normalize dilution by laying on the side of neighboring chambers, since it is possible to establish the optimal contour of the projected chamber on contact with neighboring laid ones. Losses in the corners of the chamber, “in the baseboards”, dilution from vaulting in the roof of the chamber are determined analytically; losses on the bottom of the chamber, dilution by laying from neighboring chambers – experimentally; by direct measurement by geophysical methods, the parameters of the dikes of empty rocks are determined to establish the amount of dilution from mixing the rock in the rock dikes. The actual level of losses and dilution of ore after the mining of the dredging unit is provided equal to the standard with strict execution of the development system and technology of the main production processes.
The relevance of the work is explained by the need to improve the quality of metal raw materials for the production of products with special properties, for example, in mining when leaching metals from ores, allowing to increase the extraction of components with a higher content in concentrates while minimizing the content of impurities. The purpose of the work. Substantiation of the possibility of changing the structure and properties of samarium titanate powder by processing in a spherical planetary mill "Activator 2S" due to the need to increase the purity of powders. Research methods: systematization, generalization and analysis of theoretical and experimental studies. To study the properties of samarium titanate, the following methods were used: scanning electron microscopy, X-ray phase, chemical, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, X-ray phase analysis, spectral and atomic absorption with the processing of the results by methods of mathematical statistics. Results. The results of the study of the structure and properties of samarium titanate powders obtained by mechanochemical synthesis using a spherical planetary mill are presented. It is shown that the elemental composition of the mechanochemically synthesized charge corresponds to the stoichiometric content of titanium oxide and samarium. Quantitative values of activation parameters are given. The time of transformation of the initial oxides into nanocrystalline samarium titanate has been determined. The phases of the transformation of samarium titanate from an amorphous state to a crystalline state under the influence of temperature are differentiated. The properties of the samarium titanate powder obtained by mechanosynthesis are given. The possibility of obtaining nanoamorphic powder of samarium titanate by mechanochemical treatment of samarium and titanium oxides of the desired condition is proved.
Purpose. The article is devoted to the approbation of a computational methodology for analyzing the strength characteristics of a section of a scraper conveyor, taking into account the external impact on the section from elements of a mine treatment complex used in coal mining. Elimination of structural defects of the section is carried out, as a rule, by simple means of increasing the size of its elements. The presence of a generalized technique for analyzing the strength of the conveyor section ensures a rational choice of materials and geometric elements of the section at the design stage. Methods.The developed method of analysis of the stress-strain state of the section of the scraper conveyor is based on the application of the method of finished elements, which is the basis of automated systems of engineering calculations. The created design model of the section makes it possible to determine the strength characteristics of the structure depending on the operating conditions and the external system of forces caused by the interaction of the section with other elements of the mining treatment complex. Results. Based on the results of the conducted research, a plan has been drawn up to optimize the design of the conveyor section, the implementation of which ensures an increase in structural strength and, consequently, an extension of the service life of the conveyor. The obtained results of computer calculations are quite correlated with production data on the assessment of the failure of conveyor sections as a result of the destruction of structural elements. Conclusions. The developed computer model of the section of the scraper conveyor, when implementing the proposed methodology for analyzing the strength characteristics of the structure, ensures the selection of rational geometrically and technological parameters of the section at the design stage.
The author's work consists in developing a system for improving the quality of the educational process at the university and effective mechanisms for its control, as well as in building a system of mutually beneficial cooperation with leading partners in the mining and metallurgical industry. To achieve this goal, various methodological techniques were used, such as analysis, a systematic approach and a comparative legal approach. These techniques were implemented in relation to the technical universities located geographically in the mountainous regions. As a result of the conducted scientific analysis, approaches are proposed that, in our opinion, will improve the quality of education in the technical universities leading close cooperation with industrial partners in various fields and industries, including mining and metallurgy. The value and significance of the results lies in the attempt to implement and test the described approaches and evaluate the preliminary results obtained in technical universities located in the mountainous areas.
The current state and prospects of agricultural development in the Central Asian countries are considered. It is shown that demographic factors and food security are the main stimulating factors for the further development of agriculture. The acceleration of the melting of glaciers in Central Asia stimulates the search and development of progressive and water-saving irrigation technologies. The problem of the impact of large and medium-sized reservoirs on the microclimate and crop yields with the increasing development of the hydroelectric potential of the region becomes relevant. The chemical composition of irrigation water is a key factor in the preservation of soil structure and the development of crops, and the movement of chemical elements through the functioning of the water-soilplant chain can harm the health of the population.
The attractiveness of the Gorny Altai territory for the development of tourism is due to the presence of rich natural resources, a developed system of recreational and health-improving programs, interesting mountain reliefs and the beauty of the region. The intensity of tourism development and the high multiplier effect of income and employment become the basis for presenting tourism as the basis for sustainable development of entire territories, which is impossible without sustainable management of the recreational nature. In this regard, research and analysis of the natural and recreational potential of the territory of mountainous Altai are of particular importance. The purpose of the study is to determine the recreational and functional zones of the Altai Territory and the main directions of their further development, taking into account the peculiarities of the geographical location and climatic factors of the Altai Mountains for the sustainable development of this territory as a resort and recreational zone. Materials and research methods. The research methodology is based on fundamental works on the management of sustainable development of recreational areas, as well as on the works of modern domestic and foreign scientists studying the problems of tourism development in the regions of Russia and in the world. In the course of the research, general scientific methods and approaches were applied: abstraction, analysis and synthesis, logical method; systems approach. Research results and discussion. For the effective and sustainable development of the tourist areas of Altai Mountains, it is necessary to adhere to the following principles: consistency, territoriality and management. Taking into account the specifics of the Altai mountainous territory, the principle of consistency includes the following measures: opening of platforms for monitoring and control of the natural environment; determination of the optimal recreational load; an inventory of unique natural monuments and cultural and historical monuments of the region; execution o
Contemporary agricultural land use is highly impacted be the factors causing its degradation. That is particularly in evidence on those agricultural lands that are in the zone of risky farming with the conjoint exposure of the above factors. This zone includes the arid steppe of the Altai Krai occupying the area of more than 2,4 million hectares, which is of great importance concerning agriculture not only for the territorial subject of the Russian Federation, but also for the Siberian Federal District and the Russian Federation as a whole. To implement the priorities outlined in contemporary strategic regulatory documents and programs concerning the development of land resources, it is necessary to analyze them on a regular basis, identify natural and anthropogenic markers (restrictions) that affect their effective and rational implementation, as well as to model and manage the territory. In this paper assessment of the climatic, geobotanical and soil characteristics of the arid steppe territory of the Altai Krai has been taken, highlighting the features in municipal areas. An analysis of the use of agricultural lands in the dry steppe pointed out the irrationality of their use and the instability of the territory depending on various factors. Blowing has been found on absolutely all agricultural lands of the zone and is the main limiting factor on them. Therefore, the agroecological zoning of the territory, considered in this paper, and developed on the basis of the conducted agroecological assessment, systematizes the prospective effective use of agricultural land. Seven land groups and fifteen subgroups have been identified. Within the subgroups, classes, ranks, genera and subgroups have been outlined. While identifying agroecological groups of lands, the transformation of the land fund structure within administrative regions, the structure of cultivated areas and the system of crop rotation has been conducted. It is pointed out that measures of agricultural landscapes optimization will provide an increase in employment, the level of profitability per unit area, the increasing volume of natural capital, the increasing <
The aim of the work is to study the patterns in long-term snow regime of highland pastures of the Inner Tien Shan. Methods: The daily Snow Depth FEWS NET scenes for Central Asia were used for monitoring of snow cover of four test sites. Three test sites were located on the plains of South Kazakhstan near Tien Shan mountains. The primary test site was a highland pasture in Inner Tian Shan mountains. This is the Aksai-Chatyrkul basin, with an area of about 2800 km2, located in the altitude range of 3200-3500 m above sea level, in Kyrgyzstan on the border with China.Time series of the average seasonal snow depth for each test site were formed, which meant the average snow depth from January 1 to March 31. Monitoring for 2001-2021 years was carried out. A first-order autocorrelation was calculated for each time series. Results: The analysis indicated that the snow cover depth of neighboring years are rather poorly related to each other for three test sites located on the plains of Southern Kazakhstan. In contrast to the S outh Kazakhstan plains, the highland Inner Tien Shan pasture was characterized by pronounced persistence ("long memory effect"). Conclusion: The highland Inner Tien Shan pasture are characterized by the presence of pronounced persistence in the long-term dynamics of the average snow depth in January-March. That is, it is more likely that after a many-snow year there will be a many-snow one, and after a low-snow year, respectively, a low-snow one. The probable cause of this phenomenon is the persistence in the long-term dynamics of the seasonal characteristics of the Siberian anticyclone, which affects the ability in the cold period to atmospheric transport of water vapors through the mountain ranges of the Northern and Western Tien Shan to the Inner Tien Shan. This pattern in the long-term dynamics of highland pasture snow depth in Inner Tien Shan can be useful for long-term planning of calendar dates of spring migration of livestock from winter plain pastures to h
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)