Purpose: to present a systematic analysis of the parameters of sustainable development of the coal-mining region (on the example of the Kemerovo region-Kuzbass) in the light of the growing environmental problems and the strengthening of external shocks. Methods: the methods of comparative analysis, grouping, and analogy were used that were implemented on the basis of the data of the Federal State Statistics Service and the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being. Results and discussion: identified in the course of the analysis, the problems of a technological, scientific, educational, social nature in the Kemerovo region-Kuzbass, having a pronounced tendency to increase, are due to the specifics of the functioning of the region, which is manifested in the consolidation of the raw materials orientation against the background of the curtailment of the scale of the processing sector, and in it – high-tech and knowledge-intensive industries, degradation of cultural and educational values, often neglect of environmental and moral norms, as well as the formation of consumer behavior of business owners. All this together determines the growth of existing environmental threats, and also determines the high susceptibility of the regional economy to the impact of increasingly emerging external challenges, the main of which is the high volatility of export prices for coal. In the context of a deteriorating environmental situation in coal-mining regions, their sustainable socio-economic development should be determined by the increasing role of social, scientific, innovative and cultural and educational determinants in the context of the regulatory parameter – environmental feasibility and safety. Thus, a positive impact on the sustainable development of an industrial region can be ensured by the deployment of cultural and educational activities, which, in turn, activates scientific and innovative development, creating prerequisites for the diversification of industrial production
At present, a tourist and recreational cluster is being formed around the federal resort of Belokurikha, which includes the adjacent territories of the Smolensk, Altai and Soloneshensky municipal districts of the Altai Territory. To determine the directions of spatial development in the cluster, information is needed on the prospects for discovering new sources of radon waters. The purpose of the study is to assess the current level of use of radon waters by the resort of Belokurikha, to identify geological and geochemical prospecting indicators of radon waters and to assess the prospects for their detection within the tourist cluster "Bolshaya Belokurikha". A field study of the territory and sampling of granitoids from the Belokurikhinsky pluton were carried out. The analysis of isotopes of uranium and thorium from granitoids was carried out according to the classical method at the Center for Isotope Research of the Russian Geological Research Institute (St. Petersburg). The analysis of the current water use was carried out based on the data of the Hydroservice of the resort of Belokurikha on water consumption for 2019. The volume of radon water consumption by the sanatoriums of the Belokurikha resort in 2019 varied throughout the year from 435.1 m3 / day in August to 282.1 m3 / day in December. This does not exceed the operational reserves of the Belokurikhinskoye deposit, which are 600 m3 / day. Potential areas for the detection of radon waters are confined to the deep sub-latitudinal Belokurikha fault, which runs along the border of the Pre-Altai plain and the Altai Mountains, and especially to the zones of intersection of faults of different directions. This is the main geological prospecting indicator. The geochemical prospecting indicator is the increased content of uranium in rocks. The highest concentrations of 238U and 232Th isotopes in the granitoids of the Belokurikhinsky pluton were found for aplites and pegmatites. Thus, the entire strip of the transition zone from the Biysk-Barnaul depression to the moun
Introduction. For North Ossetia, where about half of the territory is occupied by mountains, the problems of the mountain population and settlement are of particular relevance. They are becoming even more relevant now, in connection with the intensification of economic activity in the mountains, the construction of a cascade of Zaramag HPPs, the implementation of the Mamison project, the optimization of recreational activities, the development of environmentally friendly cattle breeding, fish farming, crop production, etc. Settlement began to rebuild to meet the needs of the economy, the infrastructure began to improve (gasification, electrification, computerization, etc.), the population again reached for the mountains. Research methods. The study of mountain settlement in the North Caucasus has begun relatively recently. The first works appeared in the 1990s. They covered the territory from Dagestan to Adygea. Mountain settlement in Dagestan was studied by Sh.S. Muduev , in Kabardino-Balkaria by A.E. Zelenskaya , in Adygea by F.V. Tlehuray . A.D. Badov [7–9; 20]. Studies of mountain settlement were also carried out by Yu.P. Badenkov [1; 10; 11], V.S. Belozerov , P.P. Turun  and others. Research results. Currently, there is a stabilization and even a slight increase in the population in the mountainous part of North Ossetia. At the same time, in summer, the number of the living population increases significantly due to the arrival of summer residents and tourists. The number of summer residents has increased significantly over the recent period, especially in the Kurtat gorge. However, some problems of both demographic and ecological character are revealed. Thus, in a number of villages there is a significant disproportion in the sex structure of the population, which negatively affects the marriage rate of the population . The dumps in the mountains have not been liquidated yet, the tailing dumps have been reclaimed with design errors and imperfections.
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The description and main characteristics of the deformation methods of the GGD field and GPS measurements used to assess the stress-strain state of seismically active mountainous areas of the Black Sea coast of Krasnodar Krai and Kamchatka are given. It has been established that the technology of the GGD field cannot guarantee the isolation of all recorded anomalies that are generated by the same source of the upcoming earthquake, and its practical use for the purposes of seismic forecasting remains limited. GPS measurement networks are a more technologically advanced and scientifically sound technology for monitoring seismic and geodynamic hazards. An example of using measurements in GPS networks and a multidimensional statistics algorithm to calculate an estimate of the integral criterion of the stress-strain state of the environment during the period of seismic activity in the Sochi area in 2017-2018 is shown.
Deep study of plant adaptations at different levels of their organization, from cellular to cenotic, is one of the fundamental problems of ecological botany. Its important aspect is the study of the structural responses of different tissue types on the change of environmental factors, including highly fluctuating conditions of the mountains. A significant role in the ability of plants to acqure a particular natural environment belongs to the organization of wood – a complex tissue performing water-conducting, mechanical and storage functions. An essential aspect of ecological anatomy is the detection of a complex of structural features characterizing the originality of the secondary xylem (wood) in representatives of arboriflora of the North Caucasus. The aim of our study was to perform comparative ecological and xylotomic analysis of the water-conducting tissues of woody flowering plants of various phytocenoses in eastern regions of the North Caucasus and the identification of the basic xylotomic character facilitating the growth of these species in the humid and arid habitats. Materials and methods of research. Samples of wood for xylotomic analysis are taken from the collections of the Botanical Museum and Herbarium of Komarov Botanical Institute (RAS, St. Petersburg), CI RAS Laboratory (Grozny), and also collected from several phytocenoses of the successive mountain belts, including foothill lowlands, during expeditions in the territory of the Chechen Republic. In total, we have examined 72 species of 51 genus from 28 families of woody flowering plants belonging to various biomorphs – tree, shrub,semifrutex, liana. Microslides and their descriptions are made by conventional methods (Yatsenko-Khmelevsky, 1954; Metcalfe, Clark, 1983), using the terminology proposed by the International Association of wood anatomists – IAWA (Wheeleretal., 1989). The method of xylotomyc characteristics’ code is used in the analysis of wood structure (Umarov and others 2007). Results. Ecological and xylotomic analysis of th
An analysis of previously performed studies has shown that the coefficient of stability of the working sides of quarries and coal mines is considered constant along the open surface of the side or along its height. The method of limiting equilibrium for the entire sliding surface allows us to obtain an average value of the coefficient. The stress-strain state of the instrument array of the working side of a coal mine under the action of a distributed load from an external rock dump is investigated. The use of the finite element method and modern geomechanics software packages made it possible to obtain indicators of the stressstrain state and stability of the board at any point of the instrument array. The regularity of the change in the coefficient of the stability margin of the side according to its height is established. The lowest numerical value of the coefficient is characterized by the lower ledges of the side, the deformation of which leads to the weakening of the upper ledges and the possible manifestation of landslides.
The paper investigates the phenomenon of radon emanation in various geological conditions – rocks, thick boulderpebble strata and a powerful landslide. Instrumental measurements of micro-seismic vibrations, radon volumetric activity (RAR) were carried out, and long-term values of the gravitational movement of the soil strata were determined on the largest Loire landslide in North Ossetia. A low OAR level was obtained, which did not exceed during the experiment (0.6 Bq/m3). It has been established that the concentration of radon can reflect the degree of enrichment in underground cracks and, therefore, information about geological cracks and the stress state of a landslide body. It has been determined that the analysis of radon anomalies can be used as an independent method for assessing the state of landslide and providing an objective scientific basis for assessing the stability of mountain slopes. The purpose of this work was to study the relationship between radon emanation and the level of external impact on the basis of monitoring large landslides in mountainous areas. Research results. As a result of the research, a low OAR level was obtained, not exceeding 0.6 Bq/m3 during the experiment. It has been established that the concentration of radon can reflect the degree of enrichment in underground cracks and, therefore, information on geological fracturing, the stress-strain state of a dispersed landslide body. This phenomenon was expressed in the fact that an increase in the amplitudes of the micro-seismic background manifests itself with a delay in an increase in the RAR or the “aftereffect time tp of radon”, after which a targeted effect on the environment or pulse-vibration processes in the environment itself, characterized by intense fluctuations, cause an increase in the intensity of radon emanation on surface. It has been established that the analysis of radon anomalies can be used as an independent method for assessing the stress-strain state of a landslide b
The aim of the study is to analyze climatic changes within the arid landscapes of the North Caucasus using observational data from the reference meteorological network, as well as spatial interpretation of the results using GIS technologies. Materials and methods. To assess climatic changes in arid landscapes, data from the Divnoe, Roschchino, Naurskaya, Makhachkala and Derbent meteorological stations were used for the period from 1961 to 2020. Material processing was carried out using statistical methods (Exсel). The results were mapped using GIS technologies (MapInfo and ArcGIS). Results. Analysis of the thermal regime of the arid landscapes of the North Caucasus for the period from 1961 to 2020 showed that climatic changes proceed according to the scenario of an increase in annual air temperature. Precipitation in the north- and southwestern areas of semi-desert landscapes is decreasing, while in the southeastern areas it is increasing. Against the background of an increase in air temperature and a decrease in precipitation, the value of the hydrothermal coefficient is also decreasing. Thematic maps obtained from the analysis of the hydrothermal coefficient illustrate the increase in the area of semi-deserts and dry steppes in 2011-2015. In comparison with 1991 -1995. Conclusions. Despite the decrease in the hydrothermal coefficient for all areas of the semi-desert landscapes of the North Caucasus, the hydrothermal coefficient value remains within the limits typical for semi-deserts and dry steppes.
The article discusses the results of studies on the electrochemical leaching of metals with the addition of a surfactant under the influence of infra-low-frequency current. Mathematical models of the dependence of leaching indicators at various numerical values of density and specially taken from the research range from the maximum allowable to standard production values of the DC reverse frequency and mathematical models characterizing the direct dependence of the leaching indicators on the density and duration of DC pulses are presented. The obtained results of the analysis of the effectiveness of the proposed method are presented in the form of tabular data on the leaching of ore under the influence of a reversible direct current, which allows assessing the prospects for processing secondary raw materials.
The growth in the power supply and the development of a mechanized complex of mining districts in coal mines has an impact on the characteristics of their power consumption. The improvement of coal mining technologies affects the servicing factor of mining machines, and the introduction of a modern variable-frequencyelectric drive can affect the dynamics of changes in electrical loads. Cited in the literature, the characteristics of the electrical load of the excavation districts of coal mines were obtained in the XX century and are outdated. To make adequate technical solutions in the design and management of power supply systems for coal mines, it is necessary to update these characteristics. Implementation of the SCADA system in coal mines makes it possible to obtain a large amount of measurement information that can be processed using modern methods of working with big data. The purpose of this work is a comparative analysis of the statistical characteristics of the electrical load of the modern Eickhoff SL 900 shearer with similar characteristics of the shearers used in the 1980s. The measurement data is collected using the SCADA system of a coal mine and includes measurements of the current, the shearer speed and the conveyor traffic flow. The measurement period covers 72 days. After the initial processing of the measurements, data arrays were formed with a time interval of 5 seconds. As a result of statistical processing of the arrays of measurements, the following characteristics of the shearer were determined: cycle time; work time; downtime; cyclic duration factor (CDF); time utilization degree (ηТ); coefficient of variation (CV). Comparative analysis of the listed characteristics showed that the SL 900 shearer has a significantly longer duration of operation and the time utilization degreein comparison with shearers of the 1960-1970s. Correlation analysis of the electrical load of the shearer with the shearer speed and the conveyor traffic flow showed&l
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)