The article describes a structured approach to the collection and verification of data on the process of blast borehole drilling in the formation of geostructural block models. When using methods and means of machine learning to create block models based on interpreted drilling data, an important aspect is the accuracy of the input data for the learning process compared with the geological and structural information about the rock mass. To identify the real response of drilling to the variation of rocks and the structure of the rock, the article provides comparison of data on the drilling process, data on specific energy intensity and data on the analysis of the changeability of the drilling in the rock when entering various geologic zones and fracture zones. To identify the real state of the rock, its variability and response of drilling data, a comparison of the slope of the ledge after the contour explosion is made in conjunction with the information on the specific energy consumption of the discontinent rows passed in blocks. The results of the endoscopic of the main explosive boreholes for the delay of telemetry data with comparison with the specific energy of drilling are presented. The analysis of the research obtained during the studies showed that the measurement system during drilling gives a real response to changes in array, such as breed transitions, the presence of fracture and disorders, etc. For a more accurate assessment of the nature of the appearance of jumps of values, it is possible to compare the specific consumption energy intensity of drilling and data behavior during MWD drilling.
The increase in the population creates prerequisites for the use of new undeveloped places, which include underground space. The development of underground space is associated with the construction of underground structures. A promising technology for the construction of underground structures is geokhodnaya. The basic element of which is a geokhod. As a rule, structures are built at shallow depths, which are characterized by rocks with a strength coefficient up to f = 1 on the scale of Professor M.M. Protodiakonov. Traditionally, the sinking of workings in these rocks is carried out by knife executive bodies. During the development and executive body design, one of the main indicators for evaluating its work is the energy intensity of the face rock destruction. As a result, a promising direction is to study the influence of the shape of the cutting edge of the knife executive body of the geokhod on the energy intensity of the destruction of the face rock. The article presents variants of schematic solutions of the geokhod knife executive body with a different shape of the knife cutting edge, developed on the basis of a functional and constructive approach to the development of constructive solutions and requirements for the geokhod executive bodies. It is established that the geokhod executive body geometric parameters, depending on the knife cutting edge shape, include: the angle of inclination of the knife with an inclined shape of the knife cutting edge; the radius of curvature of the knife cutting edge with a semi-convex and knife convex shape. The previously developed method of determining the face rock destruction energy intensity by the knife executive body of the geokhod is presented. For a promising direction of studying the influence of the geokhod knife executive body cutting edge shape on the energy intensity of the face rock destruction, the article provides initial data, which include the physical and mechanical properties of rocks and geokhod geometric parameters. As a result of the study, it was found that: the angle of inclination of the kn
One of the main global threats in the 21st century is the pollution by industrial enterprises (dyes and heavy metals) of the world’s fresh water resources. The main danger is posed by contaminated industrial wastes, which are so loaded with industrial waste that they cannot be used in the future, as well as dumped without purification due to toxicity, aggressiveness and other negative properties. Methods of chemical oxidation, ion exchange, nanofiltration, sedimentation, flotation, etc., used for industrial wastewater treatment, are ineffective, i.e. cleaning is carried out partially or not at all. The purpose of the work is to development of new materials with high adsorption properties by changing and selecting the optimal synthesis parameters for creating filters for industrial wastewater treatment. Object of study. Industrial waste water. Research methods. Nanostructured powders based on Sm3Fe5O12, used as filters for industrial wastewater treatment, are synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The features of the surface topology, structure, shape and size of the particles of the samples are investigated by the methods of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The chemical and phase composition of the research objects was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) phase analysis. The adsorption properties of the samples were investigated using spectrophotometry. Results and discussion. The obtained results of the research carried out make it possible to solve a number of problems arising from environmental pollution in general and the treatment of industrial wastewater, in particular, through scientifically based recommendations for the creation of powder filters as an adsorbent, which is used as nanostructured powders of samarium iron garnets. Conclusions. It was found that an empirical study of the charac
The article presents the new basic functional systems of underground devices of the “geokhod” class, as well as the problems faced by developers at all stages of the creation of experimental and prototypes of the new class of underground devices “geokhod”. The development of systems of a new class of underwater vehicles is hindered by the lack of special scientific and methodological support. The authors of the article propose the creation of a new scientific specialty “Geodynamics of underground apparatuses”. The article presents the formula of the scientific specialty “Geodynamics of underground apparatuses”; priority tasks of the scientific specialty “ Geodynamics of underground apparatuses “, within which research is carried out and primaryresults are obtained. But so far, the state of scientific and methodological support in this area is a deterrent. The development of a new scientific direction “Geodynamics of underground apparatuses” will make it possible to fill this gap. Similarly, with the Aerodynamics of aircraft, and Geodynamics of underground vehicles as a science should include the basics of two main components: geodynamics and dynamics of movement of underground vehicles. Geodynamics of underground apparatuses should determine the forces and moments acting on underground apparatuses and on the basis of this determine the rational forms of interacting surfaces. It is noted that in all known definitions and problems of geodynamics there is no binding to the definition of the interaction of the machine and the geoenvironment. The concept of “geomedia” is defined by the example of geokhod mining. The geomedia is heterogeneous and anisotropic in its properties. When a solid body interacts with a medium, the formation of an interaction surface is inevitable. For the process of motion of a solid body in a solid medium, there are two real surfaces: the surface of a moving body and the surface of the medium, the shape and dimensions of which may not coincide, perhaps even often cannot coincide. By analogy with the aerodynamic shape, it is proposed to introduce the concept of “geodynamic shape”. To reduce the forces of resistance to the movement of the underground apparatus in the geomedia and to ensure its stability, it is important not only the rational external form of the underground apparatus and its systems, but also the rational form of the surface of the geo-environment – the Geodynamic shape of the surface. In conclusion, the main tasks of Geodynamics of underground apparatuses are formulated.
In Vladikavkaz (Republic of North Ossetia-Alania) in the period from October 04 – 08, 2021, the Scientific Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the Problems of Mineral Enrichment, the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science “Institute of Problems of Integrated Development of Mineral Resources named after Academician N.V. Melnikova of the Russian Academy of Sciences” (IPCON RAS), the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Higher Education “North Caucasus Mining and Metallurgical Institute (State Technological University (SKGMI (GTU)” held an international conference “Problems of complex and environmentally safe processing of natural and man-made mineral raw materials” (Plaksin Readings – 2021). Plaksin Readings-2021 were attended by 150 representatives from 51 organizations, including 15 academic and 11 industry institutes, 9 large mining and metallurgical companies. The reports were made by scientists from Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Mongolia. Plenary reports were presented by leading scientists in the field of mineral processing: Chanturia V.A., Shadrunova I.V. (Institute of Problems of Integrated Development of Mineral Resources named after Academician N.V. Melnikova RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation); Innovative processes of deep and environmentally safe processing of technogenic raw materials in the context of new economic challenges); DmitrakYu.V. (North Caucasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (State Technological University), Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russian Federation) “The main directions of scientific activity of SCGMI (GTU) in the study and solution of the problem of complex and environmentally safe processing of natural and technogenic mineral raw materials”; Kurkov A.V., Anufrieva S.I., Temnov A.V. (N.M. Fedorovsky All-Russian Research Institute of Mineral Raw Materials of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian
Report. The purpose of the work is to identify the features of the formation of the microelement composition of soils under the mountain meadow vegetation of the Greater Caucasus based on the analysis of literary materials and the results of our own field research. Methods. The study of the microelement composition of soils under subalpine and alpine vegetation was carried out on the territory of the Teberdinsky State Biosphere Reserve. Traditional methods of soil-geochemical studies were used with the laying of soil sections, the selection of soil samples and their analysis for the content of four trace elements (Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd). Determination of trace elements was carried out by voltammetric and atomic absorption methods. The humus content was determined by the Tyurin method with wet salting, the pH of the water extract was determined potentiometrically. Statistical processing of the obtained data was performed in the Statistica 10 program. The microelement composition of soil-forming rocks was compared with the clarks of chemical elements in the upper part of the continental crust; the microelement composition of mountain-meadow soils was compared with the clarks of the soils of the world. The radial distribution of trace elements in the soil profile was analyzed. The qualitative trace element composition of soils was characterized as a sequence of decreasing the content of trace elements in the humus horizon. Results. It is established that the microelement composition of soils under the mountain-meadow vegetation of the Western Caucasus is formed under specific conditions that affect the course of soil processes. High solar insolation, low temperatures, intensive humidification throughout the year affects the features of the processes of humification, the formation of clay minerals in the soil and other products of intra-soil weathering. The predominance of acid hydrolysis processes leads to the predominant accumulation of aluminosilicates, Fe hydroxides, chelated organomineral complexes in the soil profile, which play a leading role in the binding of trace elements. The microelement composition of mountain-meadow soils under subalpine vegetation is formed with more intensive processes of humus formation and oglinivaniya. These soils are characterized by a more pronounced biogenic accumulation of Cu and Zn in the humus horizon, the illuvial nature of the Cd distribution is more pronounced. The microelement composicomposition of mountain-meadow soils under alpine and rock-scree vegetation is formed against the background of relatively weakened processes of humus formation, humus accumulation and oglinivaniya. This affects the lower intensity of biogenic accumulation of trace elements, their leaching into the lower part of the profile. Conclusions. The main regularities of the formation of the microelement composition of mountain-meadow soils are determined by the special conditions in which these soils develop. The fixation of trace elements in mountain-meadow soils occurs mainly on aluminosilicates, Fe, Mn hydroxides and chelated organomineral complexes, which largely form the silty fraction. The movement of silty particles along the soil profile leads to the redistribution of trace elements associated with them. The granulometric composition, which is an indicator of the content of the silty fraction and its distribution along the soil profile, is of great i
Introduction: Considering the significant position of medical tourism industry in global economy as well as Iran’s capabilities in this industry, the present research was conducted so as to compile the determinants of medical tourism development and present its respective strategies taking the approach of health village expansion and integrated service provision in Health Region No. 9 (Razavi Khorasan province). Methodology: This research was conducted by combining the qualitative and quantitative techniques. Data collection was done by content analysis followed by an interview and a survey administered to a number of key experts. Data were analyzed by MAXQDA-18, Expert Choice11 and Excel software and SOWT, fuzzy DEMATEL and AHP techniques. Findings: In this study, a framework of indexes was compiled and evaluated selected from different aspects taking the approach of service integration and destination competitiveness in the form of health villages. In the next phase, the status quo of Mashhad was categorized into 38 internal and 31 external factors to be prioritized. In the end, considering the identified factors and their interrelationships, the most important strategies were extracted and prioritized. Conclusions: To create a sustainable competitive market and attract more medical tourists, revealed that the respective authorities need to pay due attention to this issue proportionate to the indexes and strategies envisaged in the compilation, designing and implementation of policies and plans related to Mashhad’s medical tourism development in moving towards the creation of competitive advantage in an integrated way and promotion of medical tourism by focusing on the prioritization performed for the healthcare system.
In the present study, fault slip data, the geometry of en-echelon vein arrays (tension gash), and pressure-solution seams (stylolites), in the northeastern margin of Fars Province were analyzed. The results of this study indicate that in the time of the development of these structures, the maximum principal (σ1) stress axes were generally horizontal and directed towards NE-SW and ENE-WSW. This general direction is compatible with the expected directions of σ1 stress axes responsible for the occurrence of the sinistral top-to-the NW ductile and brittle-ductile shear zones of the area. This compatibility suggests a long-lasting stable stress condition over a long period and different pressure/temperature conditions. This longstanding constant stress state can be interpreted as the result of the occurrence of a major strike-slip NW-SE trending fault in the NE of the Zagros Hinterland Fold-and-Thrust Belt. The dextral activities of the Main Zagros Thrust and this inferred fault, which are subparallel, might result in the sinistral topto-the NW deformation in the area between this fault, which we named it Abarkuh Fault and the Main Deep Fault. This inferred fault has been covered by Quaternary alluvium of the Abarkuh plain, but the great age difference of rock units of the Esteghlal Anticline and its northeastern rock exposures, and the significant change in topography between the Abarkuh plain and its southwestern mountains can be two consequences of the existence of this probable fault.
Knowing the duration, intensity and amount of precipitation triggering landslides is of great importance for landslide risk management. Global, regional and local studies carried out by the researchers revealed that the rainfall-induced landslides occur after rainfall exceeding a certain threshold value. The rainfall threshold is the minimum intensity or duration of rainfall required to initiate the landslide. The Rainfall threshold can be estimated from the daily rainfall data which is collected from the rainguage. The methodology used by Jaiswal and Van Westen and ITC Netherland are used for the present study. Daily data from particular rainguage station closer to the landslide location were considered. The 5Days Antecedent (5-AD) rainfall for each year from daily rainfall of landslide events calculated (for 5 days AD, add the previous 5 days of daily rainfall). Then the daily rainfall and the corresponding 5AD rainfall for the all the landslide event in the same period will be plotted. The relation could be presented as a straight line with negative slope of the type RT = p*R5AD + c, where p is the slope and c is the intercept. The present study is focused on the assessment of precipitation thresholds for landslides on different slopes prone to the landslides in Russia and India, which are characterized by very different geological, geomorphological and meteorological conditions. In this article, the main attention is paid to precipitation threshold criteria as the main driver of landslides in India compared to the North Caucasus, in order to find out the contribution of various factors to the processes of landslides for the development of an early warning system. In order to form the landslide inventory map of the territory of the North Caucasus, we used the data of the Information Bulletins on the state of the subsoil of the North Caucasian Federal District for 2019-2020. For all events, there is information about the genetic types of hazardous exogenous processes, activation factors, consequences and damage. Area of Dagestan was selected. Calculations were made for landslides and rockfalls. One can see that slopes of both lines are nearly same p=-0.11-0.12, while landslides need twice a precipitation more than rockfalls. Comparison with rain thresholds for India had shown that for the territory of Russia requires by an order of less total precipitation and precipitation per day. Perhaps, here it is necessary to take into account the contribution of other factors as
well. This work is the first stage, and research will be continued. Subsequently, the influence of other factors on the formation of landslides and rockfalls will also be studied (the influence of earthquakes, man-made impacts, etc.) according to the data of various geophysical methods.
Flood is represented as one of the most destructive natural hazards to humankind. Assessing and predicting floods hazard is necessary to offer appropriate solutions for flood mitigation and sustainable environmental management. It is only possible when the main criteria that contributed to creating the flood hazard are pointed out. The purpose of the current research was to choose and attribute scores to all various flood-causing factors in the Lam river basin. Firstly, the Delphi method was applied to the expertbased survey to choose six key parameters that led to the floods, including rainfall, slope, relative slope length, drainage density, land cover, and soil. Then, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach is employed as an effective tool to obtain a better understanding of all the factors or indicator contributions in the flood process based on weight given to each of six flood influencing elements. The consistency analyses revealed that the findings were coherent and consistent with a previous study. It is also interesting to notice that rainfall and slope are the most prominent flood occurrence criteria with 45% and 25.5%, respectively. However, the influence of other factors (drainage density, relative slope length, land cover, and soil) is not visible. These parameters are assigned to the small weights and do not have a significant influence on the flood phenomenon. The study results provide baseline information, which needs to be taken into account to mitigate and control floods.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)