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POPULATION RETURN TO THE MOUNTAINS: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF NORTH OSSETIA)

Alexander D. Badov, Oleg A. Badov, Larisa Kh. Dzakhova, Juliet B. Byazrova, Valery B. Kelekhsaev

Introduction. For North Ossetia, where about half of the territory is occupied by mountains, the problems of the mountain population and settlement are of particular relevance. They are becoming even more relevant now, in connection with the intensification of economic activity in the mountains, the construction of a cascade of Zaramag HPPs, the implementation of the Mamison project, the optimization of recreational activities, the development of environmentally friendly cattle breeding, fish farming, crop production, etc. Settlement began to rebuild to meet the needs of the economy, the infrastructure began to improve (gasification, electrification, computerization, etc.), the population again reached for the mountains. Research methods. The study of mountain settlement in the North Caucasus has begun relatively recently. The first works appeared in the 1990s. They covered the territory from Dagestan to Adygea. Mountain settlement in Dagestan was studied by Sh.S. Muduev [4], in Kabardino-Balkaria by A.E. Zelenskaya [5], in Adygea by F.V. Tlehuray [6]. A.D. Badov [7–9; 20]. Studies of mountain settlement were also carried out by Yu.P. Badenkov [1; 10; 11], V.S. Belozerov [12], P.P. Turun [13] and others. Research results. Currently, there is a stabilization and even a slight increase in the population in the mountainous part of North Ossetia. At the same time, in summer, the number of the living population increases significantly due to the arrival of summer residents and tourists. The number of summer residents has increased significantly over the recent period, especially in the Kurtat gorge. However, some problems of both demographic and ecological character are revealed. Thus, in a number of villages there is a significant disproportion in the sex structure of the population, which negatively affects the marriage rate of the population [5]. The dumps in the mountains have not been liquidated yet, the tailing dumps have been reclaimed with design errors and imperfections.

Number of views: 328

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DEFORMATION METHODS FOR SEISMIC ACTIVITY MONITORING IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF THE BLACK SEA COAST AND KAMCHATKA

Valerij L.Shestopalov, Vladimir A. Fomenko, Andrey A. Sokolov, Andrey S. Miroshnikov

The description and main characteristics of the deformation methods of the GGD field and GPS measurements used to assess the stress-strain state of seismically active mountainous areas of the Black Sea coast of Krasnodar Krai and Kamchatka are given. It has been established that the technology of the GGD field cannot guarantee the isolation of all recorded anomalies that are generated by the same source of the upcoming earthquake, and its practical use for the purposes of seismic forecasting remains limited. GPS measurement networks are a more technologically advanced and scientifically sound technology for monitoring seismic and geodynamic hazards. An example of using measurements in GPS networks and a multidimensional statistics algorithm to calculate an estimate of the integral criterion of the stress-strain state of the environment during the period of seismic activity in the Sochi area in 2017-2018 is shown.

Number of views: 267

ECOLOGICAL AND XYLOTOMIC ANALYSIS OF WOODY FLOWERING PLANTS FROM VARIOUS PHYTOCENOSES AT THE EASTERN REGIONS OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS

Evgenia S. Chavchavadze, Mukhadi U.Umarov, Svetlana B. Volkova, Olga Y. Sizonenko

Deep study of plant adaptations at different levels of their organization, from cellular to cenotic, is one of the fundamental problems of ecological botany. Its important aspect is the study of the structural responses of different tissue types on the change of environmental factors, including highly fluctuating conditions of the mountains. A significant role in the ability of plants to acqure a particular natural environment belongs to the organization of wood – a complex tissue performing water-conducting, mechanical and storage functions. An essential aspect of ecological anatomy is the detection of a complex of structural features characterizing the originality of the secondary xylem (wood) in representatives of arboriflora of the North Caucasus. The aim of our study was to perform comparative ecological and xylotomic analysis of the water-conducting tissues of woody flowering plants of various phytocenoses in eastern regions of the North Caucasus and the identification of the basic xylotomic character facilitating the growth of these species in the humid and arid habitats. Materials and methods of research. Samples of wood for xylotomic analysis are taken from the collections of the Botanical Museum and Herbarium of Komarov Botanical Institute (RAS, St. Petersburg), CI RAS Laboratory (Grozny), and also collected from several phytocenoses of the successive mountain belts, including foothill lowlands, during expeditions in the territory of the Chechen Republic. In total, we have examined 72 species of 51 genus from 28 families of woody flowering plants belonging to various biomorphs – tree, shrub,semifrutex, liana. Microslides and their descriptions are made by conventional methods (Yatsenko-Khmelevsky, 1954; Metcalfe, Clark, 1983), using the terminology proposed by the International Association of wood anatomists – IAWA (Wheeleretal., 1989). The method of xylotomyc characteristics’ code is used in the analysis of wood structure (Umarov and others 2007). Results. Ecological and xylotomic analysis of th

Number of views: 313

FORMATION OF COAL SECTION SIDE INSTABILITY AREAS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DISTRIBUTED LOAD

Dashzhan Narodkhan, Tuiak Kopeiuly Isabek, Nurbol Khuangan, Amanbek Zandybay

An analysis of previously performed studies has shown that the coefficient of stability of the working sides of quarries and coal mines is considered constant along the open surface of the side or along its height. The method of limiting equilibrium for the entire sliding surface allows us to obtain an average value of the coefficient. The stress-strain state of the instrument array of the working side of a coal mine under the action of a distributed load from an external rock dump is investigated. The use of the finite element method and modern geomechanics software packages made it possible to obtain indicators of the stressstrain state and stability of the board at any point of the instrument array. The regularity of the change in the coefficient of the stability margin of the side according to its height is established. The lowest numerical value of the coefficient is characterized by the lower ledges of the side, the deformation of which leads to the weakening of the upper ledges and the possible manifestation of landslides.

Number of views: 320

RELATIONSHIP OF RADON EMANATION WITH THE LEVEL OF EXTERNAL IMPACT ACCORDING TO LARGE LANDSLIDES MONITORING IN MOUNTAIN AREAS

Vladislav B. Zaalishvili, Dmitry A. Melkov, Mairbek O. Revazov

The paper investigates the phenomenon of radon emanation in various geological conditions – rocks, thick boulderpebble strata and a powerful landslide. Instrumental measurements of micro-seismic vibrations, radon volumetric activity (RAR) were carried out, and long-term values of the gravitational movement of the soil strata were determined on the largest Loire landslide in North Ossetia. A low OAR level was obtained, which did not exceed during the experiment (0.6 Bq/m3). It has been established that the concentration of radon can reflect the degree of enrichment in underground cracks and, therefore, information about geological cracks and the stress state of a landslide body. It has been determined that the analysis of radon anomalies can be used as an independent method for assessing the state of landslide and providing an objective scientific basis for assessing the stability of mountain slopes. The purpose of this work was to study the relationship between radon emanation and the level of external impact on the basis of monitoring large landslides in mountainous areas. Research results. As a result of the research, a low OAR level was obtained, not exceeding 0.6 Bq/m3 during the experiment. It has been established that the concentration of radon can reflect the degree of enrichment in underground cracks and, therefore, information on geological fracturing, the stress-strain state of a dispersed landslide body. This phenomenon was expressed in the fact that an increase in the amplitudes of the micro-seismic background manifests itself with a delay in an increase in the RAR or the “aftereffect time tp of radon”, after which a targeted effect on the environment or pulse-vibration processes in the environment itself, characterized by intense fluctuations, cause an increase in the intensity of radon emanation on surface. It has been established that the analysis of radon anomalies can be used as an independent method for assessing the stress-strain state of a landslide b

Number of views: 256

MODERN CLIMATIC TRENDS OF SEMI-DESERT LANDSCAPES OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS

Ibrahim A. Kerimov, Vitaly V. Bratkov, Luiza R. Bekmurzaeva

The aim of the study is to analyze climatic changes within the arid landscapes of the North Caucasus using observational data from the reference meteorological network, as well as spatial interpretation of the results using GIS technologies. Materials and methods. To assess climatic changes in arid landscapes, data from the Divnoe, Roschchino, Naurskaya, Makhachkala and Derbent meteorological stations were used for the period from 1961 to 2020. Material processing was carried out using statistical methods (Exсel). The results were mapped using GIS technologies (MapInfo and ArcGIS). Results. Analysis of the thermal regime of the arid landscapes of the North Caucasus for the period from 1961 to 2020 showed that climatic changes proceed according to the scenario of an increase in annual air temperature. Precipitation in the north- and southwestern areas of semi-desert landscapes is decreasing, while in the southeastern areas it is increasing. Against the background of an increase in air temperature and a decrease in precipitation, the value of the hydrothermal coefficient is also decreasing. Thematic maps obtained from the analysis of the hydrothermal coefficient illustrate the increase in the area of semi-deserts and dry steppes in 2011-2015. In comparison with 1991 -1995. Conclusions. Despite the decrease in the hydrothermal coefficient for all areas of the semi-desert landscapes of the North Caucasus, the hydrothermal coefficient value remains within the limits typical for semi-deserts and dry steppes.

Number of views: 288

ELECTROCHEMICAL METAL LEACHING WITH ADDED SURFACTANT UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF INFRA-LOW-FREQUENCY CURRENT

Yuri I. Kondratyev, Oksana A. Sokolova, Indira O. Aimbetova, Svetlana V. Galachieva

The article discusses the results of studies on the electrochemical leaching of metals with the addition of a surfactant under the influence of infra-low-frequency current. Mathematical models of the dependence of leaching indicators at various numerical values of density and specially taken from the research range from the maximum allowable to standard production values of the DC reverse frequency and mathematical models characterizing the direct dependence of the leaching indicators on the density and duration of DC pulses are presented. The obtained results of the analysis of the effectiveness of the proposed method are presented in the form of tabular data on the leaching of ore under the influence of a reversible direct current, which allows assessing the prospects for processing secondary raw materials.

Number of views: 274

ANALYSIS OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT OPERATING MODES OF THE EXCAVATION SITE OF A MODERN COAL MINE

Vyacheslav A. Voronin, Fedor S. Nepsha, Alexander N. Ermakov, Leonid I. Kantovich

The growth in the power supply and the development of a mechanized complex of mining districts in coal mines has an impact on the characteristics of their power consumption. The improvement of coal mining technologies affects the servicing factor of mining machines, and the introduction of a modern variable-frequencyelectric drive can affect the dynamics of changes in electrical loads. Cited in the literature, the characteristics of the electrical load of the excavation districts of coal mines were obtained in the XX century and are outdated. To make adequate technical solutions in the design and management of power supply systems for coal mines, it is necessary to update these characteristics. Implementation of the SCADA system in coal mines makes it possible to obtain a large amount of measurement information that can be processed using modern methods of working with big data. The purpose of this work is a comparative analysis of the statistical characteristics of the electrical load of the modern Eickhoff SL 900 shearer with similar characteristics of the shearers used in the 1980s. The measurement data is collected using the SCADA system of a coal mine and includes measurements of the current, the shearer speed and the conveyor traffic flow. The measurement period covers 72 days. After the initial processing of the measurements, data arrays were formed with a time interval of 5 seconds. As a result of statistical processing of the arrays of measurements, the following characteristics of the shearer were determined: cycle time; work time; downtime; cyclic duration factor (CDF); time utilization degree (ηТ); coefficient of variation (CV). Comparative analysis of the listed characteristics showed that the SL 900 shearer has a significantly longer duration of operation and the time utilization degreein comparison with shearers of the 1960-1970s. Correlation analysis of the electrical load of the shearer with the shearer speed and the conveyor traffic flow showed&l

Number of views: 286

DATA COLLECTION FEATURES OF DURING THE BLAST WELLS DRILLING FOR THE FORMATION OF GEOSTRUCTURAL BLOCK MODELS

Valentin A. Isheiskiy, Evgeny A. Martynushkin, Anton S. Vasiliev, Sergey A.Smirnov

The article describes a structured approach to the collection and verification of data on the process of blast borehole drilling in the formation of geostructural block models. When using methods and means of machine learning to create block models based on interpreted drilling data, an important aspect is the accuracy of the input data for the learning process compared with the geological and structural information about the rock mass. To identify the real response of drilling to the variation of rocks and the structure of the rock, the article provides comparison of data on the drilling process, data on specific energy intensity and data on the analysis of the changeability of the drilling in the rock when entering various geologic zones and fracture zones. To identify the real state of the rock, its variability and response of drilling data, a comparison of the slope of the ledge after the contour explosion is made in conjunction with the information on the specific energy consumption of the discontinent rows passed in blocks. The results of the endoscopic of the main explosive boreholes for the delay of telemetry data with comparison with the specific energy of drilling are presented. The analysis of the research obtained during the studies showed that the measurement system during drilling gives a real response to changes in array, such as breed transitions, the presence of fracture and disorders, etc. For a more accurate assessment of the nature of the appearance of jumps of values, it is possible to compare the specific consumption energy intensity of drilling and data behavior during MWD drilling.

Number of views: 292

GEOKHOD KNIFE EXECUTIVE BODY CUTTING EDGE SHAPE INFLUENCE STUDIES ON THE ENERGY INTENSITY OF THE FACE ROCK DESTRUCTION

Vladimir Yu. Sadovets, Dmitry A. Pashkov

The increase in the population creates prerequisites for the use of new undeveloped places, which include underground space. The development of underground space is associated with the construction of underground structures. A promising technology for the construction of underground structures is geokhodnaya. The basic element of which is a geokhod. As a rule, structures are built at shallow depths, which are characterized by rocks with a strength coefficient up to f = 1 on the scale of Professor M.M. Protodiakonov. Traditionally, the sinking of workings in these rocks is carried out by knife executive bodies. During the development and executive body design, one of the main indicators for evaluating its work is the energy intensity of the face rock destruction. As a result, a promising direction is to study the influence of the shape of the cutting edge of the knife executive body of the geokhod on the energy intensity of the destruction of the face rock. The article presents variants of schematic solutions of the geokhod knife executive body with a different shape of the knife cutting edge, developed on the basis of a functional and constructive approach to the development of constructive solutions and requirements for the geokhod executive bodies. It is established that the geokhod executive body geometric parameters, depending on the knife cutting edge shape, include: the angle of inclination of the knife with an inclined shape of the knife cutting edge; the radius of curvature of the knife cutting edge with a semi-convex and knife convex shape. The previously developed method of determining the face rock destruction energy intensity by the knife executive body of the geokhod is presented. For a promising direction of studying the influence of the geokhod knife executive body cutting edge shape on the energy intensity of the face rock destruction, the article provides initial data, which include the physical and mechanical properties of rocks and geokhod geometric parameters. As a result of the study, it was found that: the angle of inclination of the kn

Number of views: 275
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ISSN 1998-4502 (Print)                                                            ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)