The article examines a complex technical system on the example of air supply of coal mines, characterized by: multicomponent, a large number of quantitative and qualitative parameters, nonlinearity of interdependencies between them; incompleteness of information, the complexity of experimental research, the risks of dangerous
situations and the catastrophic nature of their consequences; the uniqueness of the modes and conditions of the systems functioning. The aim of the work is to develop a methodology for assessing and analyzing the aerodynamic parameters of air flows for the effective selection of air supply schemes in coal mines using the decomposition method. Research methodology: the solution of the set tasks is based on modern methods of mathematical statistics; graph theory; decision theory; apparatus of mathematical logic; factor analysis; mathematical modeling; set theory; reliability theory and systems analysis. Research results. A method for the analysis and analytical modeling of complex technical systems of variable structure (CTS VS) is developed, focused on the features of these systems and their processes in conditions of incomplete information, different quality data on their state and functioning, which differs from the known ones by a combination of the capabilities of analytical and statistical approaches to the construction of CTS VS models, which allows to adapt to changes in systemic and external factors, improve the accuracy of modeling, and also typify the presentation of fuzzy situational features for effective management of the CTS VS. Conclusion. A method has been developed for assessing the reliability of the parameters of the CTS VS based on the algorithms for analyzing and assessing the reliability of the CTS VS, the algorithm for the formation of the most complete subsets listing in the graph all possible compatible subsets of a given set of vertices differing in that they are based on the analysis of enlarged states and decomposition of the structural diagram, which allows analytical and statistical studies to significantly increase the accuracy of assessing the reliability of CTS VS and reduce the amount of calculations. Result: the proposed methods were used to solve the problems of air distribution control in coal mines.
The relevance of the work is caused by the need to survive the mining industry during the protracted post-reform crisis and to minimize its negative impact on the ecology of the region through the development of technogenic mineral resources. Purpose of work. Substantiation of the possibility of replacing the traditional components of the filling composite with own or attracted man-made wastes after their processing to a level that meets the conditions of environmental safety and economic feasibility. Research methods: systematization, analysis and generalization of theoretical and experimental research in this area, as well as patent data. Results. A generalization is made, the result of an analysis of the mechanism and rates of accumulation of waste from mining and processing of mineral raw materials is given, and a multifactorial mathematical model of degradation of environmental ecosystems as a result of the impact of waste is formulated. A historical background is given and an assessment of the development of mineral deposits with backfilling with hardening mixtures based on utilized man-made waste in a closed cycle is given. A promising method of activating the binding components of the hardening mixture is recommended, treatment in a high-speed mill - disintegrator. The results of experimental studies of the possibility of using metallurgical slags of the Chusovoy metallurgical plant as a binder and as an inert filler of ore dressing wastes of PJSC Uralkali are given. It is shown that if the content of unrecovered metals in industrial waste is more than the background level, they can be disposed of after the extraction of metals within the framework of a single technological cycle of waste-free production. It is concluded that when preparing a filling composite, it is possible to replace traditional commercial components with man-made waste from mining and processing and metallurgical industries after extracting useful components from them and neutralizing hazardous impurities. The prospect of the transition of mining production to an innovative principle of organization, which excludes the storage of waste, is noted, for which it is advisable to combine physical-technical and physical-chemical technologies at the design stage in the technological process of resource development. Conclusions. The involvement of man-made waste in a closed production cycle increases the environmental and economic efficiency of enterprises. Conversion of production to minimize waste volumes and their use in their own or in related production is an effective step towards sustainable development of the mining region.
The relevance of the work is explained by the importance of the problem of restoring the industrial potential lost during the reforms at one of the large fields and minimizing its negative impact on the environment. Purpose of work. Substantiation of the possibility of reanimating the lost potential of mining enterprises through the use of combined technologies with the management of subsoil exploitation indicators based on the use of substandard raw materials after processing. Research methods: systematization, generalization and analysis of theoretical and experimental studies in this area, including those carried out at the considered fields. Recommended parameters of mining operations are determined by generalizing theory and practice, research results and analytical calculations based on assessing the behavior of discrete rocks in a massif with a gravitational-tectonic-structural stress field from the condition of consolidation of structural units. Results. A certificate was given on the reserves and development of tungsten and molybdenum deposits, taking into account the retrospective. The problem of restoration of mining production on the preserved infrastructure in comfortable natural conditions is formulated. The results of complex studies with the identification of the regularities of deformation of the rock mass are presented to assess the danger of destruction of the rock mass and the collapse of the earth's surface. Distinctive features of the field. The technologies for managing the state of the massifs with the details of their participation in geodynamic processes are characterized. Information on environmental pollution by metal-containing tailings waste is given and it is shown that this is a consequence of the imperfection of the applied technology of mining and processing of ores. An algorithm for the use of tailings for the preparation of hardening mixtures and a control system for the state of the massif are recommended. It was concluded that the restoration of the potential of enterprises is possible on the basis of a combined mining technology with factory processing of rich ores and leaching underground and in heaps of poor ores and enrichment wastes in disintegrators.
Mining operations in potash and salt deposits are complicated by gas emissions and gas dynamic phenomena. The analysis of a large number of gas dynamic phenomena and intense gas emissions at potash mines in Russia and Belarus allowed the authors to identify some patterns. In particular, it was found that the maximum number of gas dynamic phenomena occurs in the 7–10 year of operation of the mines. The purpose of the study is to analyze and identify available information on the influence of heliophysical and manmade factors on the state of rock massifs, which will allow purposefully predicting and preventing the manifestations of these factors, increasing labor safety and efficiency of mining enterprises. Research methods: methods of a full-scale mine experiment to determine the gas content of rocks and the gas content of workings, as well as analysis of statistical data. The results of the study showed that the analysis of data on 84 cases of gas dynamic phenomena at the mines of PJSC Uralkali revealed an increase in the volume of gas emissions from the developed lavas spaces at the mines of JSC Belaruskali as a result of a drop in barometric pressure on the surface. In conclusion, it can be noted that the combination of natural factors together with a powerful man-made impact on the environment creates certain prerequisites for disasters of various scales, ranging from destructive earthquakes to subsidence of mountain pressure, gas dynamic phenomena and intense gas emissions in mines and mines. The set of established patterns formed the basis for the development of a number of preventive measures that increase the safe working conditions of miners and the efficiency of mining enterprises.
Purpose of the study. Optimization of the parameters of high speed fan units of air coolers, the combination of which achieves the highest economic efficiency of fan units and, accordingly, the most rational range of specific speed values for the modes of maximum efficiency of fan units in combination with the relative diameter of the sleeve. Development of a mathematical model for determining the local values of the parameters of the efficiency of highspeed fan installations. Sustainable development of territories with active subsoil use is closely related to solving the problems of improving industrial safety and the efficiency of cooling the compressed gas at compressor stations of main gas pipelines, which actualizes the problem of mathematical modeling of energy conversion processes in the impellers of fan units of gas air coolers (AVO) to increase the competitiveness of the oil and gas complex RF in the context of globalization. Research methods. To optimize and determine the limiting combination of calculated parameters, the mathematical method of searching for the area of local maxima of a multiparameter problem in this part was performed in two stages: a mathematical model was built for determining the local values of the parameters that ensure the highest efficiency of fan installations with high speed; the most rational limiting combination of design parameters was determined, at which the highest economic efficiency of fan installations is achieved. Research results. The possibility of increasing the economic efficiency of axial fan units of high speed, made according to aerodynamic schemes with one impeller for gas air cooling devices, has been established. Using the mathematical analysis of the basic laws of axial turbomachines, equations for the efficiency of a fan unit and a fan are obtained, depending on the specific speed. Formulas are obtained for the maximum values of the efficiency of the fan and the fan unit of various specific speed depending on the coefficient of the consumpconsumption speed and on the relative diameter of the impeller sleeve. A method is proposed for constructing aerodynamic schemes of axial fan units for air-cooled gas coolers of the "K" type with maximum maximum values of efficiency for given values of specific speed, relative diameter of the impeller sleeve, aerodynamic quality of the impeller profiles, coefficient of aerodynamic resistance of the flow path of the coefficient of flow velocity. The possibility of creating a fan installation with a speed of ny ≥ 400 with an efficiency of at least ηy=0,86. Application area. Enterprises of the oil and gas complex of the Russian Federation for cooling compressed gas using AVO compressor stations of main gas pipelines.
The goal of the research was to clarify the regularities of the dynamics of gas release from the surface of the outcrop of the developed coal seam. The main research methods were theoretical methods of mathematical physics and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Gas-bearing coal seams are usually mined underground. When driving development workings, outcropping surfaces of gas-bearing coal seams appear and gases in the seams under excessive pressure are released into the atmosphere of the mine workings. Gas-bearing coal seams are usually mined underground. When driving preparatory workings, surfaces of outcropping of gas-bearing coal seams arise and gases that are in the seams under excessive pressure are released into the atmosphere of the mine workings. The most important gas-dynamic characteristic of this process is the rate of gas release, which represents the volume of gases released from a unit area of exposure of a coal seam per unit of time. A generalized law of resistance for gas filtration in a rock mass is recommended, and a fairly rigorous thermodynamic substantiation is given. It is shown that the densities of gas mass flows in accordance with the postulate of their linear relationship with the driving forces are determined by the Onsager relation. The results obtained and their discussion is presented. Mathematical models are proposed for engineering calculations of the dynamics of methane release from the outcropping surface of medium-thick coal seams. The error of the adopted approximations does not exceed 3%. The intensity of methane release is directly related to the planogram of work in the working face. Analysis of this dependence indicates that during the extraction cycle, methane release increases due to an increase in the area of the gas-release surface. The main conclusions are as follows: mathematical modeling of the processes of gas movement in a porous sorbing medium using approximate mathematical models representing linearized equations of mathematical physics; the regularities of the dynamics of the rate of gas release from the surface of the outcrop of a gas-bearing coal seam is the theoretical basis for the mathematical description of the process of gas release; the use of a linearized hyperbolic filtration equation most accurately describes the processes of methane release from the outcropping surface of mined coal seams.
On the example of JSC SUEK, the expediency of using robotic technologies at open-pit mining enterprises in Russia is considered. The analysis of industrial safety, socio-economic factors and economic feasibility suggests the need for the use of robotic technologies in mining enterprises. The ideology and practical steps of digital transformation in mining were formed in stages. Positively influencing the efficiency of work and the level of industrial safety of mining enterprises, the processes of digital transformation at mining enterprises in Russia have passed the stages of development: The first stage is Sensors and autonomous GIS products, the equipment of which allowed optimizing the loading of mining equipment by an average of 8%, increasing tire mileage by 7–15%, practically preventing accidents, digitizing mining and geological systems; The second stage is monitoring and statistics, which, using the experience of the first stage, made it possible to achieve an average fuel economy of 10%, increase cargo transportation productivity by 15%, and increase the technical readiness coefficient (CTG) by 4%; The third stage - Optimization and integration” contributed to an increase in the productivity of mining equipment by 10-15% stabilization of the quality of coal (ore), an increase in the productivity of drilling rigs by 15-20% while reducing the cost of drilling by 2–7%; The fourth stage is Predictive analysis, where, based on the achievements of the three previous stages, the prediction of the risk of accidents is achieved and, taking into account the modeling of optimization of technical and economic processes, preliminary maintenance is carried out with a forecast of production from extraction to enrichment. The fifth stage - Robotics - is a “revolutionary” increase in productivity due to changes in the parameters of geotechnologies. Modern production based on digital technologies is exposed to three main drivers: changing demands of mining enterprises, technology development and increased competition. Digital transformation is the process of transition of an enterprise to new ways of thinking based on the need to improve industrial and environmental safety and work based on the use of social, mobile and other digital applications.
There is a worldwide trend of increasing the share of extraction and processing of low-grade minerals, but their extraction and processing volumes are still low. There are several reasons for this: high mining and transportation costs, imperfect techniques and technological difficulties in enrichment and processing of refractory and low-quality minerals. Due to the depletion of reserves of easily beneficiated raw materials and to compensate for the growing shortage of high-quality minerals, the Russian mining industry development strategy provides for the involvement of new and unconventional types of deposits into production. Examples of such deposits are deposits of carbonaceous raw materials (black shale, refractory sulphide carbon-bearing ores, impactites, etc.) containing carbon of varying degrees of metamorphism. On the basis of the most modern mineralogical, physical, nuclear and chemical methods of research of composition, structure and properties of the carbonaceous raw materials at the micro- and nanolevel, the composition of the productive mineral matter, physical, chemical and thermodynamic laws of separation of valuable mineral components and the basic technological processes to obtain the finished product for valorization of the unconventional carbonaceous mineral raw materials were determined with maximum reliability. One of the possible reasons of
difficulty of beneficiation of carbonaceous raw materials is the fine phenocrysts in graphite which can be solved by using the flotation process. Contrast of surface properties of minerals with similar technological properties can be increased by application of different energy effects (MEMI, MIO, microwave, electrochemical treatment etc.) at successive stages of raw material transformation, regulation of pulp conditioning conditions (duration and intensity of agitation, heat treatment of pulp) as well as by development and application of selective reagent regimes. The special feature of flotation as a method of extraction of noble and rare metals is the ability to extract valuable metals not only in their native free form, but also in close association with sulphides and carbon. Flotation with the use of intensifying influences made it possible to transfereven low-sized structures of noble and rare metals, which are not extracted by conventional methods of cyanidation, gravitation enrichment and amalgamation, into the concentrate. One of the ways to increase the efficiency of the flotation process is preliminary modification of the additive which is introduced in addition to the main reagents of the sinter - “carrier material”.
The development of mineral resources of solid mineral resources goes mainly together with problems because
of natural factors, which determines current position of modern technological mineralogy. We paid particular attention to problems of mineralogical study of refractory ores of natural and technogenic genesis, associated with technical, technological and economic factors. We showed that many provisions of “Strategy for the development of Russian industry for the processing, utilization and disposal of industrial and consumer wastes for the period up to 2030” are related to the field of technological mineralogy. Intensive development and improvement of physical methods of mineralogical analysis resulted in need for their metrological support. Creation of a strict metrological basis for quality control of mineralogical works ensures the reliability of results of performed researches. The formation of new methods and techniques, both research tools and technologies for studying the composition, structure and properties of solid minerals, contribute to understanding interrelationships of mineral phases and resulting spatial and temporal patterns of coexistence of minerals in rocks, ores and other natural and technogenic formations. We considered achievements, problems and prospects for the development of technological mineralogy, an algorithm for the application of its methods and approaches in the management of complex processing of mineral raw. The main emphasis is placed on the development of scientific and methodological prerequisites for solving problem of rational development of mineral raw, the maximum possible extraction and integrated use of all minerals (both main and accompanying), expansion and strengthening of the mineral resource base in the light of the global challenges
of the economic and environmental doctrines of modern civilization. The studies of complex mineral systems increasingly use information technologies “big data”. For the best solution of complex tasks of geological and technological mapping and mineragenic research, methods of remote sensing using the Landsat program are becoming popular. We emphasized importance of interactive forms and methods of teaching mineralogical research for specialists from organizations of different departmental affiliation.
The need to decide the problem of growing accumulation of waste for the purposes of sustainable development and the creation of a closed-loop economy, improving the rational use of natural resources stimulate the creation of conditions for improving the efficiency of the use of waste generated during subsoil use – the main and separate group of production and consumption waste. The Considered legislative initiatives of the Government of the Russian Federation on improving the state regulation of the use of subsoil waste are considered. Technological and environmental limitations of involvement in the development of subsoil use waste are considered. The article provides an overview of modern technologies and equipment for processing mineral raw materials that are promising for involving in the processing of subsoil use waste. Examples of the development and commercial implementation of technologies for extracting valuable components from subsoil use waste are presented. Improving the processes of processing mineral raw materials and the experience of processing man-made raw materials in Russia and the world provide prerequisites for the creation of new non-waste (or) low-waste methods for processing subsoil use waste ensuring high extraction of valuable components and the use of non-metallic components.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)