Report. The purpose of the work is to identify the features of the formation of the microelement composition of soils under the mountain meadow vegetation of the Greater Caucasus based on the analysis of literary materials and the results of our own field research. Methods. The study of the microelement composition of soils under subalpine and alpine vegetation was carried out on the territory of the Teberdinsky State Biosphere Reserve. Traditional methods of soil-geochemical studies were used with the laying of soil sections, the selection of soil samples and their analysis for the content of four trace elements (Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd). Determination of trace elements was carried out by voltammetric and atomic absorption methods. The humus content was determined by the Tyurin method with wet salting, the pH of the water extract was determined potentiometrically. Statistical processing of the obtained data was performed in the Statistica 10 program. The microelement composition of soil-forming rocks was compared with the clarks of chemical elements in the upper part of the continental crust; the microelement composition of mountain-meadow soils was compared with the clarks of the soils of the world. The radial distribution of trace elements in the soil profile was analyzed. The qualitative trace element composition of soils was characterized as a sequence of decreasing the content of trace elements in the humus horizon. Results. It is established that the microelement composition of soils under the mountain-meadow vegetation of the Western Caucasus is formed under specific conditions that affect the course of soil processes. High solar insolation, low temperatures, intensive humidification throughout the year affects the features of the processes of humification, the formation of clay minerals in the soil and other products of intra-soil weathering. The predominance of acid hydrolysis processes leads to the predominant accumulation of aluminosilicates, Fe hydroxides, chelated organomineral complexes in the soil profile, which play a leading role in the binding of trace elements. The microelement composition of mountain-meadow soils under subalpine vegetation is formed with more intensive processes of humus formation and oglinivaniya. These soils are characterized by a more pronounced biogenic accumulation of Cu and Zn in the humus horizon, the illuvial nature of the Cd distribution is more pronounced. The microelement composicomposition of mountain-meadow soils under alpine and rock-scree vegetation is formed against the background of relatively weakened processes of humus formation, humus accumulation and oglinivaniya. This affects the lower intensity of biogenic accumulation of trace elements, their leaching into the lower part of the profile. Conclusions. The main regularities of the formation of the microelement composition of mountain-meadow soils are determined by the special conditions in which these soils develop. The fixation of trace elements in mountain-meadow soils occurs mainly on aluminosilicates, Fe, Mn hydroxides and chelated organomineral complexes, which largely form the silty fraction. The movement of silty particles along the soil profile leads to the redistribution of trace elements associated with them. The granulometric composition, which is an indicator of the content of the silty fraction and its distribution along the soil profile, is of great importance when characterizing the microelement composition of mountain meadow soils. The established regularities of the formation of the microelement composition of mountain-meadow soils allow us to determine the main directions of economic activity that will contribute to the preservation of their ecological state. This is, first of all, the rational use of pasture resources of mountain meadows with the introduction of a system of alternating mowing, changing the main pastures with spare ones during the year for their restoration. An important component should be monitoring changes in the trace element composition of mountain meadow soils, which will allow timely response to changes and make adjustments to the structure of the use of these soils.
|Issue||2021, № 3 (Т. 13)|
|Key words||The Greater Caucasus, mountain-meadow soils, trace elements, patterns.|