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Ways of decreasing carbon-dioxide emission and its economic characterization

Ferenc Kovács

The paper deals with the technological and economic (cost) parameters of the release, capture and storage of the carbon dioxide in the flue gases of fossil fuel (coal, natural gas) fired power plants. It makes comparisons and generalisations through processing a wide range of data quoted from theliterature. As the first step, the topicality of the issue is justified by illustrating the role of fossil fuels in the energy supply of the more remote future with forecast data. During the technological development of power plants in the last 50 years, block capacity has increased considerably, 5-8 times, with thermal capacity increasing by 50-60%, as a result of which specific carbon dioxide release has decreased by 30-40%. The paper briefly refers to the theoretical possibility of the sequestration of the carbon dioxide captured from flue gases in geological formations. The enhancing effects of the implementation of CO2 capture on investment costs and its reducing effect on net power plant output and utilization (thermal) efficiency are also analysed in the paper. The efficiency of CO2 capture and the parameters of atmospheric carbon dioxide emission are also given attached to fuel types and technological solutions. As a parameter of the technological solutions, it is indicated what specific cost (USD/tCO2) is demanded for CO2 capture or avoidance, and to what extent it raises the costs of electricity production.

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ISSN 1998-4502 (Print)                                 ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)